Your Toddler

Study: Preschool Kids Do Better As Adults

1.45 to read

Can preschool help your child be better prepared as an adult? New results from a 25 year study says absolutely. Have you been struggling with whether to send your child to preschool next year? Maybe a new publicly funded study can help with your decision.

According to results from a Chicago based study with children from low-income families, preschool had surprising long-term benefits. Researchers followed more than 1,000 children for up to 25 years. They tracked nearly 900 children into adulthood. What they discovered was that low-income kids who attended preschool ended up with better jobs, less drug abuse and fewer arrests than children who didn’t attend preschool. Arthur Reynolds began studying more than 1,500 Chicago kids back in 1986, and he’s kept up with most of them ever since. About two-thirds of those children went through the Child-Parent Center Education Program – the rest through traditional pre-kindergarten programs, which start later and are less intensive. The two groups had similar backgrounds, largely poor and African American. Now those kids are turning 28, and Reynolds, a University of Minnesota professor of child development, says people who had rigorous preschool are still enjoying advantages after 25 years. “There’s an initial effect on school readiness,” said Reynolds, a professor of child development at the University of Minnesota. “That kind of sets off sort of a chain reaction that leads to the changes that we see in adulthood at the end of the twenties.” The ongoing publicly funded program focuses on language development, scholastic skills and building self-confidence. It involves one or two years of half-day preschool, and up to four additional years of educational and family services in grade school. The findings were published in the online version of the journal Science. Previous studies have also found that attendance at high quality preschools produced similar results. Though many preschool kids also received extra services in grade school, including intensive reading instruction, the researchers found the most enduring effects, particularly for non-academic success, were due to one or two years of preschool. The authors theorize that those intensive early childhood experiences built intellectual - skills, social adjustment and motivation that helped children better navigate their high-risk environments. The challenges facing the low-income children were daunting, and the final results were, as adults, the average income for those attending preschool was $12,000 less than the average income. Also almost half of them had been arrested. But even though the statistics sound grim, they were not as dismal as for the kids who did not attend preschool. Preschool gave the children who attended a leg-up in the world. Experts not involved in the study still called the results impressive. "To still show really any advantage for such a long period of time is remarkable and noteworthy," said Kyle Snow, director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children's applied research center. The study's lead researcher, Arthur Reynolds of the University of Minnesota, said the differences between the groups are meaningful and translate to big savings to society for kids who attended preschool. The average cost per child for 18 months of preschool in 2011 is $9,000, but Reynolds' cost-benefit analysis suggests that leads to at least $90,000 in benefits per child in terms of increased earnings, tax revenue, less criminal behavior, reduced mental health costs and other measures.  "No other social program for children and youth has been shown to have that level of return on investment," he said. Some of the study’s results were: —80 percent of the preschool group finished high school versus 75 percent of the others. —Nearly 15 percent of the preschool group attended a four-year college, versus 11 percent of the others. —28 percent of the preschool group had skilled jobs requiring post-high school training versus 21 percent of the others. —Average annual adult income for the preschool group was about $11,600 versus $10,800 for the group that did not attend preschool. The low average incomes include zero earnings for those in prison and close to that for adults who were still in college or studying elsewhere. —14 percent of the preschool group had abused drugs in adulthood versus 19 percent of the other. —48 percent of the preschool group had been arrested in adulthood and 15 percent had been incarcerated, versus 54 percent of the others arrested and 21 percent incarcerated. Preschool offered many of the children a solid base for further education, and an opportunity to start the first grade better prepared.

Your Toddler

Evenflo Booster Seat Recall

Evenflo voluntarily recalls booster seats after Consumer Reports says the seats did not perform well in safety crash tests.One of the largest manufacturers of baby and child gear is voluntarily recalling 18,000 care safety seats after the seats failed a significant crash test.

The seat in question is the $80 dollar Evenflo Masestro seat. This combination toddler-booster seat is designed for children from 20 to 100 pounds. Children use it with the harness until they’re big enough to use it with a vehicle’s seatbelt. Consumer Reports conducted a simulated 30-mile-per-hour crash test at an outside laboratory and found two of the seats failed when used with their harness. Consumer Reports says if the harness loosen in a real crash, it allows the child to move much farther forward, exposing their head and neck to injury, as well as increasing their potential for ejection. Consumer Reports notified Evenflo and the company issued “a voluntary safety recall of certain Maestro child restraint systems built between November 24, 2009 and April 9, 2010.”  Here are the models:

  • 3101198
  • 3101980
  • 31011048
  • 31011049
  • 31011057C
  • 31011059

To find out when a seat was made, check the label on the top of the shell. The manufacturing date will be at the top. Evenflo says no injuries have been reported, but it has developed a free fix that parents should install before using the seat in harness mode. It also says parents of bigger children may safely use the Maestro seat in its booster mode until the fix comes. To get your repair kit, contact Evenflo at 800-233-5921.

Your Toddler

Long-Term Study Confirms Measles Vaccines Safe


Researchers in a 12-year-study, investigating the safety of two measles-containing vaccines have found them safe and effective.

The study included children between the ages of 12 to 23 months. Some of the children received the MMRV vaccine (measles –mumps-rubella-varicella). The others were administered the MMR + V vaccine (measles, mumps. rubella and varicella), but they received both the MMR and the V vaccines on the same day.

In total, the researchers at the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center in California looked at almost 125,000 MMRV doses and nearly 600,000 MMR + V doses.

Many parents are still concerned that there may be long-term health issues that are either introduced or triggered by the vaccines. Dr. Nicola Klein, co-director of the vaccine study center, said parents should feel confident in the vaccines’ safety.

"Our findings offer reassurance that adverse outcomes of measles-containing vaccines are extremely rare and unlikely, and that parents of 1-year-old children can choose MMR + V instead of MMRV vaccines to reduce the low risk of fever and febrile seizures," Klein said in a Kaiser Permanente news release.

The vaccines didn't increase children's risk of seven types of neurological, blood or immune system disorders. No other safety concerns were identified with either vaccine, according to the researchers.

Previous studies have suggested that the two vaccines are associated with fever and fever-related (febrile) seizures in one-year-old children. The study confirmed these previous findings. These types of seizures usually happen seven to 10 days after vaccination. The study also found that the MMRV is more likely to cause febrile seizures than MMR + V.

Febrile seizures, which happen during a fever, can be common in toddlers and young children. Although frightening to witness, seizures often don’t cause serious health problems. Having said that, anytime a child has an unexpected seizure, you should seek emergency help just in case.

The researchers emphasized the risks of febrile seizures from the vaccines is small; occurring in less than one of every 1,000 vaccine injections.

"This level of safety monitoring for vaccines can give the public confidence that vaccine surveillance is ongoing and that if a safety problem existed, it would be detected," Klein said in the news release.

The study was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Source: Robert Preidt,

Your Toddler

“Late-Talkers” Can Catch Up

1.50 to read

Parents of children who are "late-talkers" may have no reason to worry says a new study. Do you have a toddler that isn’t talking as much as you think he or she should? There’s no need to worry according to a new study

A study recently published in the journal Pediatrics says 18 percent of children have a language delay. Parents should not be overly concerned that late-talking at age two years will result in enduring language and psychological difficulties for the child," Dr. Andrew Whitehouse, an associate professor and of developmental psychopathology at the University of Western Australia in Subiaco. Researchers followed children who were part of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study, including 1,245 children whose speech was not delayed: they were using at least 50 words and could string two or three words together in a phrase, and 142 who had not reached this milestone. The children were tracked through age 17. The Child Behavior Checklist, also based on parental report, was used to measure behavior by parent report and to measure child and adolescent behavior during follow up at 2-years-old, 5-years-old, 8-years-old, 10, 14, and 17. At age 2, the children identified as “late-talkers” were more likely than other toddlers to have behavioral problems. But there was no difference between the groups at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17. The study looked at survey results filled out by parents on more than 1,400 two-year olds, born between 1989 and 1991. The researchers found that one of 10 kids was a late-talker, and these kids tended to act more introverted and displayed more emotional problems. Dr. Whitehouse suggests that frustration may be at the root of the behavioral problems, and as the child develops better communication skills, the frustration eases or goes away. Children usually can form meaningful words by the age of 18 months. Between the ages of 2 to 3 years old, children should be saying new words each month and using two-word sentences, such as "more juice." Some children are late talkers because of hearing loss, cognitive impairment, speech disorder, language disorder, autism, or other considerations. If your child is a late talker it’s important to have your pediatrician check for possible medical causes. Still, for many it is simply a developmental stage with no long-term adverse effects.

Your Toddler

Are Little Girl's Toys Too Sexy?

2.00 to read

Peter Pan may never have grown up, but Tinker Bell and her fairy friends definitely have. The Disney Fairies boast hourglass figures, coy glances and barely-there mini dresses. In short, these girls aren’t your mama’s pixies.Notice anything new about the dolls and ponies that your daughter picks up at the toy store these days? Once you get a good look at them, do you think they may be a little too hot-to-trot? You're not alone.

An article on this week’s MSNBC’s website, offers a look into the world of children’s sexed-up play things. Peter Pan may never have grown up, but Tinker Bell and her fairy friends definitely have. The Disney Fairies boast hourglass figures, coy glances and barely-there mini dresses. In short, these girls aren’t your mama’s pixies. Even trolls have come of age. Those formerly stout, pug-nosed kewpies, have reemerged in a new slim, thigh-baring line called Trollz. Rainbow Brite and Strawberry Shortcake have become tweens and shed their baby fat.  And et tu Holly Hobbie? She’s traded her prairie dresses for a saucy wardrobe and lightened locks. In recent years, Disney, Mattel and other major companies have revisited a host of iconic dolls and turned them into freshly tarted-up — or at least more grown-up —toys. New lines, like the Monster High Dolls and hot-to-trot Struts horses (yes, horses),  came out of the gate tramping it up and they're making some parents — and psychologists, uncomfortable. “They send the message to kids that you can’t just be you,” says Lori Mayfield, a 30-year-old mother of four from Draper, Utah. “It seems like toy makers are setting up our kids.” While she likes the Disney fairies because they “have a good friendship and there’s always a lesson to be learned,” she says that even she and her husband, Chad, were startled by their saucy style. The actually found themselves recently debating which fairy is the hottest. (Consensus: Silvermist.)  Mayfield, who runs the blog, Twinfinity from her home, says she and her husband strive to teach the kids that beauty comes from within, but frets that her 6-year-old daughter is already asking to wear makeup and worrying whether her coat makes her look fat. Dale Atkins, a psychologist says she's upset about what the revved-up dolls are teaching girls about their own appearance.  “When we have these ridiculous models —sexualized children, and horses with long eyelashes that are flirtatious and all of that — it sets up this ideal of beauty and body image that kids have to pay attention to because they can’t not pay attention to it. And they feel less good as they’re trying to develop a good sense about their own bodies," she says. "The sexualized aspect just makes them feel like they're only good if they are objectified. ... And it's all so subtle, for a child anyway. We parents and adults look at this and say, 'Oh my gosh, this is so blatant, but in fact it's subtle because kids are playing with these things and then they look in the mirror." But representatives at Mattel, the makers of the wildly popular Monster High Dolls, say its controversial line of toy dolls, featuring the teen offspring of monsters, aims to show kids it's OK to be different. “Monster High is all about celebrating your imperfections and accepting the imperfections of others," says Margaux Vega, spokeswoman for Mattel.  She acknowledges that the dolls, which sport fishnet stockings, heavy makeup and ultrashort skirts, appeal mostly to 5- to 7-year-olds. But they also have online personas and webisodes aimed at older kids that tell each doll's back-story. "Clawdeen Wolf is the teenage daughter of a werewolf. In the webisodes, she has to shave and wax and pluck between classes," Vega says. "Girls of a certain age know about the embarrassment of unwanted hair in unwanted places.” 'Why does she look like a boy?' It's gotten so that some kids, even young tots, expect that dolls will look like they've already been through puberty.  When Joy Oglesby showed her daughter, Lauren Welmaker, a picture of the old version of Tinker Bell in a library book, the 4-year-old, who has all the new Disney fairies, wondered: "Why does she look like a boy?" Oglesby, 34, of Fort Lauderdale, Fla., has seen Struts horses, which have long eyelashes and wear high heels on their hooves, and says her daughter would love one. "The mane is silky and she would be attracted to the eyes, and the accessories that come with it. It looks very girly, I'm not sure why she gravitates to this kind of toy, but I'm not worried about it yet." But the effect of titillating toys creeps in slowly, says Peggy Orenstein, the author of the bestseller “Cinderella Ate my Daughter.” “Girls don’t naturally want to be sexy — they want to be girls,” says Orenstein. “That is natural. [But] when they continue to see images of toys that are supposed to be age appropriate emulating sexiness, then that un-natural aspiration, becomes natural.”  Orenstein says toy manufacturers began following the marketing strategy “Kids Getting Older Younger” when they realized that toys marketed towards kids between the ages of 8 and 12 were attracting kids who were in the 3-year-old to 8-year-old age range because they wanted to emulate their older brothers and sisters. But Donna Tobin, director of global brand strategy and marketing for Hasbro, says the company actually has gone the opposite direction with makeovers for its toy My Little Pony, aimed at girls ages 3 to 6. "We want our girls to stay little longer!" she says. "Look at My Little Pony. She’s cute. She’s pretty. She’s pink. She may have a different look, but she has always stood for friendship. We’re not about ipstick or shaving." As younger kids gravitate to older toys earlier, their big sisters and brothers often have already closed up their toy boxes and moved on to other things. At ages 6 and 8, sisters Amanda and Sophia Oliva of Fort Lauderdale, Fla., aren't interested in playing princess anymore, says their mom, Lauri. When they play dress up, they pretend to be models. And their newest obsession is with teen music sensation Taylor Swift. “Now, everything in our house is about Taylor Swift," says Lauri Oliva, 46. Sophia tries to emulate her. She'll sing and dance Taylor Swift karaoke songs in the mirror.” For Sophia's birthday, all she wanted was tickets to a Swift concert. "Kids are 8 going on 15 these days,” she says. What is old is new again Some kids' toys aren't necessarily being marketed to kids, but rather to their parents, says Reyne Rice, trend specialist for the Toy Industry Association. She says updating the look of a toy is a way manufacturers can appeal to the new generation of consumers while still tapping into the nostalgic interest and collector dollars of the older generation.  “A lot of these toy manufacturers realized the interest in brands that have been around for generations and realized there was still interest in the brands — from both the children as young as 3, as well as their parents,” says Rice. But Dr. Gail Saltz, psychiatrist, suggests parents actually seek out their old favorites instead of embracing some of the "refreshed" versions. “You have to use your judgment,” she says — and maybe hit up eBay or garage sales for the classic versions. “If you have a choice, I’d take the old Strawberry Shortcake.” Saltz says these sexed-up toys and childhood icons go in the same category as violent video games and PG-13 movies: Parents need to take a close look, evaluate them for themselves, and decide whether they’re appropriate. Melissa Walker, 41, of Southlake, Texas, walks the line of finding suitable toys for her daughters Gabrielle, 6, and Adeline,4, while letting them indulge their interests. Gabrielle loves the Disney fairies and says her favorite is Rosetta, "because she's pink and that's my favorite color. And because I like flowers and she makes flowers." (Rosetta is the red-headed fairy with a "garden talent.") Walker doesn't mind the Disney fairy makeover because of the overall message they send. "They control everything. They are in charge of seasons, of things working. They are good role models," says Walker. But she draws the line at sexy doll clothes. On a recent shopping trip to Costco, Walker saw a big bin of Barbie clothes, but despite her daughters' love for the doll, her cart remained empty. "There was not one outfit that wasn't a 'hoochie' dress. I guess it was the 'Barbie Goes Wild' collection. We didn't buy anything. There's no reason for that," adding that she's happy to buy Barbie outfits where she looks like a doctor or a princess or a soccer player. Walker has a strict "no exposed belly buttons" rule in her house, and figures her kids' dolls should follow it, too. "We don't want to plant that too soon," she says. "We'll have that fight soon enough."

Your Toddler

1 in 5 Preschoolers Obese

A new study shows that the obesity rate in children continues to increase; almost one in five American 4-year-olds is obese. The study, conducted by researchers at Ohio State University and Temple University, also shows that the obesity rate is alarmingly higher among American Indian children, with nearly a third of them obese.

Overall, more than half a million 4-year-olds are obese. Obesity is more common in Hispanic and black children too, but the disparity is most startling in American Indians, whose rate is almost double that of whites. The lead author said that rate is worrisome among children so young, even in a population at higher risk for obesity because of other health problems and economic disadvantages. "The magnitude of these differences was larger than we expected, as it was surprising to see differences by racial groups present so early in childhood," said Sarah Anderson an Ohio State University public health researcher. Dr. Glen Flores, a pediatrics and public health professor at the University of Texas Southwester Medical Center in Dallas who was not involved in the study, said the research is an important contribution to studies documenting racial and ethnic disparities in children's weight. "The cumulative evidence is alarming because within just a few decades, America will become a 'minority majority' nation," he said. With interventions, the next generation "will be at very high risk" for heart disease, high blood pressure, cancers, joint diseases and other problems connected with obesity," said Flores.

Your Toddler

Liquid Nicotine Poisonings up 300 percent!

2.00 to read

Most people are familiar with e-cigarettes. New e-cigarette stores are popping up almost every day. City councils around the country are debating the pros and cons of setting age limits to buy them and banning them in places where smoking cigarettes is already forbidden.

There’s another e-cigarettes related story that’s is much more alarming that is beginning to surface - the potentially deadly liquids that are often bought and used to refill the e-cigarette vaporizer.

These “e-liquids,” the key ingredients in e-cigarettes, are powerful neurotoxins. Tiny amounts, whether ingested or absorbed through the skin, can cause vomiting and seizures and even be lethal. A teaspoon of even highly diluted e-liquid can kill a small child.

According to an article in The New York Times, e-liquids are being mixed on factory floors and in the back rooms of shops.

Toxicologists warn that e-liquids pose a significant risk to public health, particularly to children, who may be drawn to their bright colors and fragrant flavorings like cherry, chocolate and bubble gum.

Many users, unaware of the toxicity of the ingredients, are casually leaving replacement bottles around the house where children are finding and ingesting them.

“It’s not a matter of if a child will be seriously poisoned or killed,” said Lee Cantrell, director of the San Diego division of the California Poison Control System and a professor of pharmacy at the University of California, San Francisco. “It’s a matter of when.”

Nationwide, the number of poison cases linked to e-liquids jumped to 1,351 in 2013, a 300 percent increase from 2012, and the number is on pace to double this year, according to information from the National Poison Data System. Of the cases in 2013, 365 were referred to hospitals - triple the previous year’s number.

As two examples, of the 74 e-cigarette and nicotine poisoning cases called into Minnesota poison control in 2013, 29 involved children age 2 and under. In Oklahoma, all but two of the 25 cases in the first two months of this year, involved children age 4 and under. That age group is considered typical.

The e-liquids are much more dangerous than tobacco because liquid is absorbed quickly into the skin, even in diluted concentrations. Initially, many of the e-cigarette brands were disposable devices that looked like regular cigarettes. However, many of the newer e-cigarette vaporizers are larger and can be refilled with liquid that is generally nicotine, flavorings and solvents.

Unlike nicotine gums and patches, e-cigarettes and their ingredients are not regulated. The FDA has said it plans to regulate e-cigarettes but has not disclosed how it will approach the issue.

Chip Paul, chief executive officer of Palm Beach Vapors, a company that operates 13 e-cigarette franchises, estimates that there will be sales of one to two millions liters of liquid used to refill e-cigarettes.

If you look online, you can buy e-liquids anywhere from a liter to 55 gallon containers with 10 percent nicotine concentration.

Mr. Paul said he was worried that some manufacturers outside the United States — China is a major center of e-cigarette production — were not always delivering the concentrations and purity of nicotine they promise. Some retailers, Mr. Paul said, “are selling liquid and they don’t have a clue what is in it.”

The nicotine levels in e-liquids can vary. Most range between 1.8 percent and 2.4 percent, concentrations that can cause sickness, but rarely death, in children. But higher concentrations, like 10 percent or even 7.2 percent, are widely available on the Internet.

A lethal dose at such levels would take “less than a tablespoon,” according to Dr. Cantrell, from the poison control system in California. “Not just a kid. One tablespoon could kill an adult,” he said.

Many people believe that e-cigarettes are a new and valuable tool in the battle to quit smoking. The science isn’t there yet to say whether they actually help or just replace conventional cigarette addiction. But one thing is for sure, if you have e-cigarettes and in particular, e-liquid refill containers in the home, they should be kept out of a child’s eyesight and reach.

Source: Matt Richtel,

Your Toddler

Anchor It!


The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has launched “Anchor It”, a national public education campaign, to help make people aware of the dangers that free-standing furniture and TVs present, particularly to children.

The annual number of children injured or killed from furniture and TV tip-overs is astounding.

According to CPSC data, unstable and unsecured TVs and large pieces of furniture kill a child every two weeks, on average, in tip-over incidents that are easily preventable.  CPSC also reported that 38,000 Americans go to emergency rooms each year with injuries related to tip-overs of top-heavy furniture or televisions placed on furniture, instead of a TV stand.  Two-thirds of those injuries involved children younger than 5.  Additionally, between 2000 and 2013, 84 percent of the 430 deaths reported to CPSC involved children younger than 10.

A January 2015 CPSC report found that a television tipping over from an average size dresser falls with thousands of pounds of force. 

The impact of a falling TV is like being caught between two NFL linemen colliding at full-speed—10 times. 

“Every 24 minutes in the U.S. a child goes to the emergency room because of a tip-over incident involving furniture or a TV,” said CPSC Commissioners Marietta Robinson and Joseph Mohorovic. “We must take action now. CPSC’s new ‘Anchor It!’ campaign is a call to action for parents and caregivers to ‘get on top of it, before they do.’ If we can prevent one more death, it will be worth it.”

Cards and posters are being distributed parents and caregivers of toddlers at daycare centers and preschools. A list of safety steps parents and caregivers can take are printed on the handouts. They are:

·      Buy and install low-cost anchoring devices to prevent TVs, dressers, bookcases or other furniture from tipping.

·      Avoid leaving items, such as remote controls and toys, in places where kids might be tempted to climb up to reach for them.

·      Store heavier items on lower shelves or in lower drawers.

·      Place TVs on a sturdy, low base and push them as far back as possible, particularly if anchoring is not possible.

·      If purchasing a new TV, consider recycling older ones not currently used. If moving the older TV to another room, be sure it is anchored properly to the wall.

The “Anchor It” campaign’s website ( shows you how to anchor furniture and television sets properly, with easy to follow instructions. Keep your little one safe and Anchor It!


Your Toddler

Daytime Nap Has Benefits Beyond Rest for Kids

A new small study shows that for children aged four and five, taking a nap during the daytime may help reduce hyperactivity, anxiety and depression.Any parent can testify that a child's naptime is also beneficial for the caregiver. Now a new small study shows that for children aged four and five, taking a nap during the daytime may help reduce hyperactivity, anxiety and depression. The study of 62 children categorized them as either napping (77 percent) or non-napping (23 percent). Researchers found that those who didn't take daytime naps had higher levels of anxiety, hyperactivity and depression.

The data was based on the parents' or caregivers' reporting of the child's typical weekday and weekend bedtime/wake time and napping patterns. Family demographics and behavioral assessments of the children were also included in the analysis. Researchers found that children who took naps did so an average 3.4 days a week. "There is a lot of individual variability in [the age] when children are ready to give up naps. I would encourage parents to include a quiet 'rest' time in their daily schedule that would allow children to nap if necessary," said lead author Brian Crosby, a postdoctoral fellow of psychology at Pennsylvania State University. In his research, Crosby also noted an optimal age for children to stop napping hasn't yet been determined.



Please fill in your e-mail address to be included in our newsletter.
You may opt out at any time.