Your Toddler

Toddler Dies From Liquid Nicotine Poisoning

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The Fort Plain, New york police called the death a “tragic accident” after investigating the case of a 1-year-old who was rushed to the hospital after being found unresponsive in his home. The toddler died from ingesting liquid nicotine, also known as e-liquid, the key ingredient in e-cigarettes.

A lot of smokers, including teenagers, are switching from regular cigarettes to e-cigarettes and are now getting their nicotine fix by inhaling a vapor.  However, e-cigs are expensive and in an effort to cut costs, many will purchase vials of liquid nicotine to refill their e-cigarette; sort of like buying a carton of cigarettes instead of a couple of packs a day.

Liquid nicotine contains high levels of concentrated nicotine. It doesn’t take but a little bit to make someone very sick. The powerful stimulant can be accidently ingested or absorbed through the skin.  Even a teaspoonful of e-liquid can kill a child. Lesser amounts can cause seizures and other dangerous symptoms.

Like cigarettes, liquid nicotine should always be kept out of the reach of children and pets. Many of the vials come in bright colors with flavors such as bubblegum, strawberry, vanilla and chocolate - kids will be tempted to taste it. E-liquids are not regulated and do not have childproof caps. If carelessly left where a child or pet can find it, the results can quickly turn deadly.

Health officials are concerned that more fatal accidents could happen if steps aren’t taken to protect children.

"One teaspoon of liquid nicotine could be lethal to a child, and smaller amounts can cause severe illness, often requiring trips to the emergency department," the American Association of Poison Control centers in a statement, ABC News reported. "Despite the dangers these products pose to children, there are currently no standards set in place that require child-proof packaging."

In recent years, there's been a sharp rise in the number of liquid nicotine-related calls to U.S. poison control centers. Signs of consumption of liquid nicotine can include vomiting, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, convulsions and, in extreme cases, loss of the ability to breathe or death.

The police in this case, said they weren’t sure that the e-liquid that killed the toddler was associated with an e-cigarette and so far, no charges have been filed in the death of the child. It was just a tragic accident.

Recent studies point out that electronic cigarette use is on the rise with high-school students. Some teens say they are using them to help stop smoking, while others are giving them a try for the first time- even though they don’t smoke. Researchers noted in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) survey, that even middle-school student use rose from 2.7% to 3% in 2013.

How do kids purchase liquid nicotine? It’s readily available on the Internet. All you do is fill in a birth date and you’re in. You can buy a gallon of the stuff if you have the money. You can also purchase little bottles to fill from your bulk buy. It’s that simple.

While adults may be more likely to keep their liquid nicotine vials put away, teens don’t often think of the consequences of leaving theirs on the floor, on a desk, on the bed, in a purse on the sofa, in a backpack on the kitchen table – wherever they usually drop their stuff - for a small child to find. 

In New York, the toddler’s death has prompted a call for changes in how liquid nicotine is packaged; requiring childproof caps and someone must be least 18 years old to purchase it at a store.

This is not a pro or con e-cigarette use article. It’s a warning for anyone that uses liquid nicotine to be very aware of where you leave your vial. This may have been the first reported case of a toddler dying from nicotine poisoning; let’s all do our part to make it the last.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20141215/toddler-dies-liquid-nicotine

Your Toddler

Long-Term Study Confirms Measles Vaccines Safe

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Researchers in a 12-year-study, investigating the safety of two measles-containing vaccines have found them safe and effective.

The study included children between the ages of 12 to 23 months. Some of the children received the MMRV vaccine (measles –mumps-rubella-varicella). The others were administered the MMR + V vaccine (measles, mumps. rubella and varicella), but they received both the MMR and the V vaccines on the same day.

In total, the researchers at the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center in California looked at almost 125,000 MMRV doses and nearly 600,000 MMR + V doses.

Many parents are still concerned that there may be long-term health issues that are either introduced or triggered by the vaccines. Dr. Nicola Klein, co-director of the vaccine study center, said parents should feel confident in the vaccines’ safety.

"Our findings offer reassurance that adverse outcomes of measles-containing vaccines are extremely rare and unlikely, and that parents of 1-year-old children can choose MMR + V instead of MMRV vaccines to reduce the low risk of fever and febrile seizures," Klein said in a Kaiser Permanente news release.

The vaccines didn't increase children's risk of seven types of neurological, blood or immune system disorders. No other safety concerns were identified with either vaccine, according to the researchers.

Previous studies have suggested that the two vaccines are associated with fever and fever-related (febrile) seizures in one-year-old children. The study confirmed these previous findings. These types of seizures usually happen seven to 10 days after vaccination. The study also found that the MMRV is more likely to cause febrile seizures than MMR + V.

Febrile seizures, which happen during a fever, can be common in toddlers and young children. Although frightening to witness, seizures often don’t cause serious health problems. Having said that, anytime a child has an unexpected seizure, you should seek emergency help just in case.

The researchers emphasized the risks of febrile seizures from the vaccines is small; occurring in less than one of every 1,000 vaccine injections.

"This level of safety monitoring for vaccines can give the public confidence that vaccine surveillance is ongoing and that if a safety problem existed, it would be detected," Klein said in the news release.

The study was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20150107/long-term-study-finds-measles-vaccines-safe

Your Toddler

Iron Deficiency in Newborns

Babies at the higher end of the low-birth-weight spectrum are at risk of iron deficiency, and should get iron supplements, according to a Swedish study published Monday in Pediatrics.For years iron supplements have been given to low weight babies to reduce the long term effects of too little iron in the baby’s blood. A new Swedish study suggests that babies born in the mid-weight range can also benefit from iron supplementation.

Babies at the higher end of the low-birth-weight spectrum are at risk of iron deficiency, and should get iron supplements, according to a Swedish study published Monday in Pediatrics. These "marginally" low-birth-weight infants tip the scales at 4 pounds, 6-8 ounces when born. They represent a large percentage of newborns; for example, 5 percent of babies born in the US every year are in the marginally low-birth-weight range. While iron supplements are recommended for all low-birth-weight babies, these recommendations aren't always followed for the infants who fall into the marginal range, Dr. Magnus Domellof of Umea University in Sweden told Reuters Health. There is "large variation between different clinics and different hospitals, and there is a lack of guidelines." Iron deficiency can have a serious impact on a child’s neurological development, but giving too much iron may also be harmful. To investigate the effects of iron supplementation, Dr. Domellof and his colleagues randomly assigned 285 healthy, marginally low-birth-weight babies to receive either a placebo, or 1 milligram of iron per kilogram of body weight, or 2 milligrams of iron per kilogram, every day between 6 weeks and 6 months of age. At six months, the researchers found, 36 percent of children in the placebo group were iron deficient, compared to only 8 percent of the 1-mg group and 4 percent of the 2-mg group. The most severe deficiency, or anemia, was seen in 10 percent of the group given only the placebo. Eighteen percent of the exclusively breastfed babies in the placebo group had iron deficiency anemia. Dr. Domellof and his colleagues saw no adverse effects of iron supplementation in any of the infants. Full-term, healthy babies born to well-nourished mothers have adequate stores of iron in their bodies to carry them through their first 6 months of life. For this reason, they can thrive on breast milk, which contains very little iron, and then begin eating iron-rich solid foods at 6 months of age. But smaller babies have lower reserves, and need to start iron supplementation earlier. Based on the findings, the researchers conclude that marginally low-birth-weight infants should receive iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age. Dr. Domellof, and his colleagues, plan to follow the children up to age seven to determine whether iron deficiency -- or iron supplementation -- has long-term effects on health and development. Parents should discuss iron deficiency with their Pediatrician before starting their baby on an iron supplementation program.

Your Toddler

What’s In Infants and Toddler’s Prepackaged Food?

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As a parent, you may have assumed that pre-packaged food for infants and toddlers surely must be healthy; I mean really, what kind of a company would knowingly put these innocents at risk for long-term health issues? If that has indeed been your assumption, then you may be surprised to learn the results of a new study using a comprehensive analysis of foods sold for infants and toddlers by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

However, if you’ve ever read the confusing Nutritional Facts list on such products, you may not be surprised at all.

The health culprits contained in children’s food products are sugar and sodium. A little is fine, too much is a health disaster waiting to happen in the form of diabetes, obesity and heart disease. The harsh reality is that some of these products have more sodium and sugar in them than adult food products.

We’re not talking about natural sugars and sodium contained in food, but added sugar and salt to make the foods “taste better”.

The CDC’s study showed that about one-third of prepared dinners made for toddlers contained at least one kind of added sugar as well as 97% of breakfast pastries and cereal bars. Researchers found that 88% juices and other drinks marketed for infants and toddlers contained added sugars.

On the sodium spectrum, 72% of toddler dinners were found to be way over the recommended limit, with an average of 2,295 milligrams of sodium per meal. The Institute of Medicine recommends that toddlers consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day.

Some foods marketed to infants and toddlers had more sodium than comparable adult foods. Among 34 types of savory snacks for infants and toddlers – a category that includes crackers, some types of rice cakes and mini-hot dogs sold in jars – the average concentration of sodium was 486 mg per 100 grams of food. In comparison, salted potato chips intended for adults have about 450 mg of sodium per 100 grams, the researchers noted in their study, which was published by the journal Pediatrics.

When you take a hard look at what children are eating these days, and the lack of recommended physical activity, it’s no surprise that 23% of American kids between the ages of 2 and 5 (yes, that young) are either overweight or obese. With the added sodium in their diets, obese children are at an increased risk of high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease (the No.1 cause of death in the U.S.), and other health problems. These health issues are starting to show up in teenagers, where once they didn’t develop till much later in life.

The CDC researchers set out to better understand the amount of sodium and sugar in prepared foods designed for infants and toddlers. They scoured a commercial database that includes nutrition information on more than 200,000 prepared foods. They also walked the aisles of Wal-Marts, Targets, Costcos and supermarkets in the Atlanta area to find additional products for their analysis. Altogether, they included 1,074 food items for infants and toddlers in their sample.

The good news is that not all of their findings negative. For instance, among 657 infant vegetables, fruits, dry cereals, dinners and ready-to-serve items that combined mixed grains with fruit, all but two were considered low in sodium. In addition, more than 80% of the 582 fruit, vegetable, soup and dinner items for infants had no added sugars.

However, food content began to change after kids turned 1 and moved on to toddler foods. Cereal bars, fruit and dry fruit snacks for this age group were still low in sodium, but most contained at least one type of added sugar. The most common additive listed was “fruit juice concentrate”, a somewhat creative name for squeezing out most of a fruit’s water and fiber so that only the fruit sugar is left.

The authors of the study expressed concern that starting children on high sodium and sugar foods when they are little could set them up for a lifetime of poor eating habits.

So what can you do as a parent? Become a label investigator before purchasing pre-packaged food for your child (or yourself for that matter).

When reading the Nutrition Facts label on a food, check for four things:

·      How many servings are contained in the product. Oftentimes a product – even a small one- contains more than one serving.

·      The sodium content per serving

·      The sugar content per serving

·      The list of ingredients.  Added sugars may have names such as high fructose syrup, corn syrup, fruit juice concentrate, maltose, dextrose, sucrose, honey and maple syrup. Added sodium may be listed as monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)

Look at where these items fall in the list of ingredients.  Ingredients are listed in order of the quantity they contribute to the overall food. When you see any ingredient listed first or at the top of the list, there’s a lot of it in the food.

For this study, the data on sodium and sugar came from the Nutrition Facts labels that appear on food packages. These aren’t necessarily accurate because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allows the figures on the label to be off by as much as 20%, the researchers noted. 

Source: Karen Kaplan,  http://www.latimes.com/science/la-sci-sn-infant-toddler-foods-salt-sugar-20150202-story.html

Your Toddler

Family Time Fosters Kid’s High-Emotional Health

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How important are family activities such as eating dinner together, storytelling, singing and playing together to a child’s present and future emotional health? According to a new study, quite a bit.

Researchers believe young children cared for in stimulating and nurturing environments, with regular participation in predictable family routines, reflects greater family organization and may provide a sense of security and belonging. It also may positively impact children's social-emotional health (SEH) before school entry and contribute to their future school and life success.

What is social-emotional health and why is it important? SEH is when someone exhibits the ability to understand emotions, express empathy with others, demonstrates a certain degree of self-regulation and can form positive relationships with others. It’s important because without these attributes it’s terribly difficult to experience self-value and find your way in the world.

High SEH in early childhood is thought to help a child adapt to the school environment and perform well academically. High SEH also is a good predictor of children's long-term outcomes.

"High social-emotional health has been associated with greater academic performance and improved behavior in the school environment," said Elisa I. Muñiz, M.D., M.S., developmental-behavioral pediatrician, Department of Pediatrics, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, who led the research. "Our findings suggest that parents with preschool aged children who regularly practice family routines together have greater social-emotional health and so we encourage families to sing, read, play and eat together on a regular basis."

Researchers examined the parental responses of 8,550 children to questions such as how many times families eat dinner together per week, how often they sing songs, read books and tell stories to their children and how often they play together. Results showed that 16.6 percent of the children had high SEH with approximately 57 percent of those reporting that they participate in three or more family routines.

Experts say that children who enter school with low SEH are at greater risk of developing difficulties in reasoning and problem solving, as well as having reduced attention spans and experiencing decreased social acceptance. This can impact their academic achievement and overall health and wellbeing through adulthood.

Families, particularly when both parents work, are often strapped for time because of busy schedules and job requirements.  But simple family activities such as singing together in the car, reading to your child before bedtime and eating dinner together can help your child feel like an integral part of the larger human family.

The study was conducted by investigators at The Children's Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center (CERC) at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx New York, affiliated with The Children's Hospital at Montefiore (CHAM). It was published in the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140304125423.htm

Your Toddler

FDA Warning About Teething Medication

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Benzocaine has been associated with a rare but serious condition called Methemoglobinemia, which reduces the amount of oxygen carried in the bloodstream and can result in death in the most severe cases. The FDA advises parents and caregivers not to use products with benzocaine on kids under 2, except under the advice and supervision of a healthcare professional.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning about over-the-counter (OTC) teething pain medicines that contain benzocaine, a local anesthetic and the active ingredient. The products are pain gels and liquid medications like Anbesol and Baby Orajel.

Benzocaine has been associated with a rare but serious condition called Methemoglobinemia, which reduces the amount of oxygen carried in the bloodstream and can result in death in the most severe cases. The FDA advises parents and caregivers not to use products with benzocaine on kids under 2, except under the advice and supervision of a healthcare professional. There have been 21 cases of  methemoglobinemia reported in children and adults with all strengths of benzocaine gels and liquids. Methemoglobinemia has occurred mainly in children ages 2 or younger who were given the benzocaine gels to ease teething pain. OTC benzocaine products come in the form of gels, sprays, liquids, and lozenges. Many OTC benzocaine products are sold under brand names listed on the FCA website.  Please note that there may be additional benzocaine products that are not listed. Consumers can look at the Drug Facts label when buying products used to treat pain in the mouth and gums to find out whether benzocaine is listed as the active ingredient. Signs and Symptoms of Methemoglobinemia Parents and caregivers using OTC benzocaine products on children should closely watch for signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia. These may include: - Pale, gray or blue colored skin, lips, and nail beds - Shortness of breath - Fatigue; confusion; headache - Lightheadedness; and rapid heart rate In some cases, symptoms of methemoglobinemia may not always be evident or attributed to the condition. Symptoms usually appear within minutes to one or two hours after using a benzocaine product, and methemoglobinemia can develop after using the product for the first time, as well as after several uses. Methemoglobinemia caused by benzocaine may require treatment with medications and may require admission to a hospital. Serious cases of methemoglobinemia should be treated promptly. If left untreated or if treatment is delayed, serious cases of methemoglobinemia may cause permanent injury to the brain and body tissues, and even death, due to an inadequate supply of oxygen. Parents and caregivers who suspect a child may have methemoglobinemia should stop using the product and seek medical help immediately by calling 911. Alternatives to Benzocaine products The American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommends the following for treating teething pain: - Give the child a teething ring chilled in the refrigerator. - Gently rub or massage the child’s gums with your finger to relieve the symptoms of teething in children. If these methods do not provide relief from teething pain, consumers should contact a healthcare professional to identify other treatments. Baby Orajel is now offering “Naturals Instant Teething Pain Relief” a gel that is benzocaine, alcohol, and dye-free. The FDA offers a list of products containing benzocaine at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm250029.htm

Your Toddler

FDA Warning: Tessalon Cough Capsules Can Pose Serious Risks

Tessalon, approved by the FDA to treat symptomatic relief of cough in patients older than 10, may attract younger children because of the drug’s candy-like appearance – a round, liquid-filled gelatin capsule. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is warning that accidental ingestion of Tessalon (benzonatate) by children younger than 10 years can result in serious side effects or death.

Tessalon, approved by the FDA to treat symptomatic relief of cough in patients older than 10, may attract younger children because of the drug’s candy-like appearance – a round, liquid-filled gelatin capsule. The safety and effectiveness of benzonatate in children younger than 10 years has not been established. “Benzonatate should be kept in a child-resistant container and stored out of reach of children," said Carol Holquist, R.Ph., director of FDA’s Division of Medication Error Prevention and Analysis. “The FDA encourages health care professionals to talk with their patients and those caring for children about the risk of accidental ingestion or overdose.” A review of the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System database from 1982 through May 2010 identified seven cases of accidental ingestion associated with benzonatate in children younger than 10. Five of the cases resulted in death in children, ages 2 years and younger. Overdose with benzonatate in children younger than 2 years has been reported following accidental ingestion of only one or two benzonatate capsules. Common adverse events reported in the overdose cases included cardiac arrest, coma, and convulsion. Signs and symptoms of overdose can occur within 15-20 minutes of ingestion. Some of the deaths reported in children have been within hours of the accidental ingestion. The FDA is also adding a new Warning and Precaution section to the benzonatate drug label to warn health care professionals about accidental ingestion resulting in overdose and death in children younger than 10. Consumers and health care professionals are encouraged to report adverse side effects or medication errors from the use of benzonatate to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program at www.fda.gov/MedWatch or by calling 800-332-1088. For more information: Tessalon Drug Safety Communication

Your Toddler

Expanding Gel Balls Dangerous If Swallowed

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Toddlers and babies love to put things in their mouth. They don’t know when something is unsanitary or dangerous, they just like to suck and chew on things. But that natural inclination can cause big problems when they swallow something that is unsafe for consumption.

One little girl in Houston,Texas did just that.

She found a cute little gel ball, put it in her mouth then unfortunately swallowed it. It was a Water Balz.

The problem is that once a Water Balz is submerged in water, or if it ends up in the stomach, it can expand to 400 times its original size.

The 8-month-old child was brought to Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston with stomach pain. Her parent’s suspected that she had eaten one of her sister’s Water Balz and became alarmed when they read the toy’s label.

Dr. Oluyinka Olutoye, a pediatric surgeon at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, told Reuters Health "It goes in small and grows on the inside and may not come out."

X-Rays taken at the hospital showed that the baby’s small intestine was swollen, as if something was causing a blockage, but the X-Rays couldn’t reveal what was causing it. The baby’s belly continued getting bigger and bigger and her symptoms didn’t go away.

"The blockage allows fluid and gas to accumulate, it is just like you step on a hose," said Olutoye, whose report appeared Monday in the journal Pediatrics.

Finally, doctors decided surgery was necessary to remove the obstruction. They cut her intestine open and drew from it a bright-green Water Balz nearly an inch and a half across.

Luckily, the baby recovered and is now doing fine.

The colorful balls are small (about the size of a marble) and are an easy temptation for toddlers and even pets. While most parents wouldn’t buy this product for their baby, they might buy it – or one similar - for their older child. That’s often how a toddler finds one to play with.

This type of product is becoming more and more common. It is made from a super-absorbent polymer that is used, not only in children’s playthings, but also in pottery and gardening products because of its ability to absorb water.

Pets can also suffer from bowel obstruction, which can be fatal, if they eat one.

DuneCraft Inc. manufactures and markets the Water Balz product. CEO, Grant Cleveland, said he was sorry to learn about the incident with the baby, but noted that the label carries a warning and is recommended for kids over the age of 4.

"An eight-month-old has no business being near that product," he told Reuters Health. "Trying to turn it in to a public risk is absurd."

There are other similar products on the market that pretty much do the same thing. They all promote that the little gel balls will expand when water is added.

“This report should serve to raise awareness of the hazards of accidental ingestion of these products, which pose a public health concern,” Dr. Olutoye and his colleagues wrote. “We speculate that this problem may increase in incidence as a cursory look at department stores suggests that the use of superabsorbent polymer technology is becoming more prevalent in toys, gardening equipment and other household products.”

The photo below, from a New York Times article, shows the difference in size once water is added to the Water Balz.

If you’ve got Water Balz in your home, or a product that performs like it, make sure that your little one is not able to get a hold of them. Keep an eye on your pets too, just in case they think you’ve bought them a new chew toy.

 

Source: http://news.yahoo.com/gel-balls-threat-toddlers-doctors-154518994.html

http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/17/expanding-ball-toy-poses-hazard...NY Times Water Balz         Water Balz

Your Toddler

Toddler’s “Body Clock” May Be Causing Sleep Problems

2.00 to read

Does your toddler have a difficult time getting to sleep most nights? It could be that his or her body clock isn’t in sync with bedtime. The body has a natural sleep and wake cycle called a circadian rhythm. It’s like a master biological clock that lets us know when to be alert and when to sleep. When our body clock gets out of sync with our real time sleep and alertness needs, we have trouble falling asleep or staying awake when we need to.

But how does that clock work in preschoolers, who need more sleep than older kids or adults? A first-of-its-kind study tracked 14 healthy youngsters for six days to begin finding out.

The children, ages 2½ to 3, wore activity monitors on their wrists to detect when they slept and the parents kept diaries of their children’s bedtime routines.

Then on the last afternoon, researchers visited each home, dimming lights and covering windows. Then every 30 minutes for six hours leading up to the child’s appointed bedtime, they also coaxed each tot to chew on some dental cotton to provide a sample of saliva.

The saliva was used to test for the hormone, melatonin. Melatonin helps control our sleep and wake cycles. It’s made by the pineal gland in the brain. Light affects how much melatonin the body produces.  During the evening hours melatonin levels start to increase causing you to get sleepy.

‘‘Just like nutrition and exercise, sleep is critical for good health,’’ said sleep scientist Monique LeBourgeois of the University of Colorado, Boulder, who is leading the research.

For preschoolers, the new study found that on average, the melatonin surge occurred around 7:40 p.m. The children tended to be tucked in around 8:10 p.m., and most were asleep 30 minutes later, LeBourgeois reported in the journal Mind, Brain and Education.

When melatonin rose earlier in the evening, tots who hit the sack around 8 fell asleep a bit faster. But when the melatonin surge was closer to bedtime, the youngsters were more likely to fuss or make curtain calls after lights-out.

Two children in the study actually were tucked in before their rise in melatonin ever occurred, and it took them up to an hour past bedtime to fall asleep, she said.

Other factors can also have an impact on children’s ability to fall asleep such as loud noises, stress or anxiety or disrupted home routines.

The National Institutes of Health says preschoolers need 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day; some typically comes from an afternoon nap.

About 25 percent of young children experience some type of sleep difficulty, including trouble settling down at bedtime, LeBourgeois said. Harried parents aside, there’s concern that early-in-life bedtime frustration might lead to more persistent sleep trouble.

‘‘Listen to your child’s physiology,’’ she advised.  She offers these steps to help your child fall asleep faster.

- Too much light in the evening delays the melatonin surge and subsequent sleepiness.  While there’s no data in young children yet, LeBourgeois says dimming the lights about an hour before bedtime makes sense.

—Avoid electronics near bedtime, because they generate a specific type of light that triggers wakefulness. LeBourgeois was horrified to hear that one parent offer a sleepless youngster an iPad to play with as long as the child stayed in the bedroom.

—And make sure blackout shades aren’t keeping your children from getting enough morning sunlight, she said. Light in the morning also is key to keeping the biological sleep clock on schedule. If your child’s bedroom needs blackout shades to make it dark enough at night, go in early and open the shades before your child needs to wake up.

More studies are planned to help track sleep patterns in toddlers. There’s no exact “sweet spot” that’s been found to guide parents on when to put their little one to bed…yet.

But, by watching your toddlers physical behavior as the evening progresses and offering a quite and calm environment with less light, you should be able to see what works best.

Source: Lauran Neergaard, http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/health/2013/12/30/body-clock-may-blame-when-tots-fight-sleep/bz3TahyhXz10qHuIPXtpCK/story.html

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