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Your Teen

Drug-Resistant Zits on the Rise

Dermatologists say the bacteria that causes acne is increasingly developing resistance to some commonly prescribed antibiotics.Dermatologists say the bacteria that causes acne is increasingly developing resistance to some commonly prescribed antibiotics, including tetracycline and erythromycin. "There's been so much attention to MRSA and other kinds of resistant bacteria which truly can kill you, whereas acne doesn't kill you," says Dr. Alan Fleischer, a professor and chair of dermatology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. "And yet we doctors see patients who have resistant acne, and we do need to be cognizant of changes. The bacteria are changing, are adapting and becoming resistant."

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat acne. They target the bacteria and inflammation and are often key in clearing up the patient's skin. But as antibiotic-resistant acne becomes a growing concern, dermatologists are moving away from using antibiotics as a primary weapon to fight acne. They fear that the long-held go-to treatments may be contributing to communal antibiotic resistance. If doctors do prescribe antibiotics, it may be only for a limited time, usually a few months, and it's often combined with another medication that can lessen the drug resistance. In the past, patients might have continued on antibiotics for years. "The strong survive, the mutants survive and they become resistant," says Dr. Jonette Keri, a Miami dermatologist. Acne is a common teenage ailment, afflicting about 75 to 90 percent of teens. Between 10 and 30 percent of acne patients harbor at least some resistant bacteria, dermatologists say. While drug-resistant acne can be devastating, the real danger is that it contributes to deadly drug-resistant staph infections. "The dangerous thing about putting zillions of folks on antibiotics is that this pressures bacteria to develop resistance methods," says Dr. Peter Lio, a Northwestern University dermatologist. "So while the acne bacteria almost never causes life-threatening infection, the ways that it can be resistant to our antibiotics can be passed over to bacteria that can cause life-threatening infection, which means that our only weapons against the bad guys suddenly do not work anymore."

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Your Teen

Teens: Smoking Cigarettes Down, Pot Use Up

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New statistics reveal that the number of American teenagers that smoke cigarettes has dropped by 64 percent in recent years. The same report also shows that the number of teens who are smoking pot has doubled.

Unfortunately, just because the percentage of kids who smoke cigarettes has dropped considerably, plenty are still lighting up. A full 30 percent of white, black and Hispanic teens smoked cigarettes, cigars or marijuana in 2013, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report. The researchers tracked teen smoking rates from 1997 to 2013.

"The nation's remarkable progress in reducing youth smoking since 1997 is great news, but the battle is far from over," said Vince Willmore, vice president for communications at Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids.

"This study reminds us that we know exactly what to do to further reduce smoking: increase tobacco taxes, enact smoke-free laws, fund effective prevention programs and implement hard-hitting mass media campaigns. These proven strategies must be continued and strengthened," Willmore added.

Researchers called for more targeted prevention programs and policies to get the word to adolescents out on the dangers of smoking.

Overall, the number of teens who smoked cigarettes or cigars dropped from 20.5 percent to slightly more than 7 percent, while marijuana use went from 4 percent to 10 percent, the report found.

Notably, marijuana use jumped from 51 percent to 62 percent among those teens who smoked cigarettes or cigars, the findings showed.

Marijuana use has increased as states make it either legal or more acceptable with reduced penalties.

Dr. Tim McAfee, director of CDC's Office on Smoking and Health, believes that more acceptance of marijuana as a harmless drug is driving its increased use among teens.

"Over the last 10 or 15 years, there has been a change in public perception of marijuana," he said. "There is the idea that marijuana is not something you need to worry about."

Marijuana use in teens hasn’t been researched much over the years, because it’s been illegal. Marijuana studies in adults have been going on for some time and especially during the last couple of decades. Health concerns about pot use and teens are beginning to emerge.

McAfee noted there is research showing that pot has a negative effect on developing brains and that some kids can become dependent on it.

“Nothing is being done” McAfee said, in terms of a tobacco-like campaign telling kids not to use marijuana or with information about the possible side effects.

The report was published in the October edition of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

In 2014, a study was released looking at the research done over the past 20 years on marijuana use, highlighting the drug’s adverse effects, both acute and chronic.

The study maps out exactly what marijuana does and does not do to the body and brain, both in the short and long terms. What’s clear is that marijuana has a number of adverse effects over years of use – in certain people, anyway. What’s not so clear is how policy should be informed by the science.

The acute effects show that driving while high on marijuana does seem to double the risk of a car crash, which is of course heightened if there is also alcohol in the system. Marijuana has been linked to low birth weight when it is used during pregnancy.

Otherwise, acute effects mainly include anxiety, paranoia (especially among new users), dysphoria, cognitive impairment, and psychotic symptoms (especially in people with a family history of psychosis).

Many of these particular side effects seem to have risen over the last 20 years, which may be due to the fact that the THC content in marijuana has also risen over that time.

THC is the chemical in marijuana that is most responsible for the drug’s psychological effects.

The chronic or long-term effects are much more troubling than the acute.

As in the case of nearly all-scientific studies, causation is difficult to prove – but a correlation is evident.

Here’s what the study by Wayne Hall, Director and Inaugural Chair at the Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research at The University of Queensland, Australia, reveals.

  • Marijuana can be addictive. But only for some people. About 10% of all users seem to develop dependence syndrome, and for those who start in adolescence, the number is more like 1 in 6. Withdrawal syndrome is also a real phenomenon, with depression, anxiety, insomnia, and appetite disturbance being the main symptoms, which can often be severe enough to have an effect on daily life.
  • Marijuana use is linked to adverse cognitive effects. In particular, the drug is linked to reduced learning, memory, and attention. It hasn’t been entirely clear whether these effects persist after a person stops using the drug, but there’s some evidence that it does. One study found a reduction in IQ of 8 points in long-time users, the greatest decline being in people who’d started using as teenagers and continued daily into adulthood. For people who began in adulthood and eventually stopped using, a reduction in IQ was not seen a year later.
  • Marijuana may change brain structure and function.  There’s been an ongoing debate about whether marijuana actually changes the brain, but recent evidence has suggested that it is linked to changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. It’s unclear, however, how long these effects last, whether they’re linked to behavioral changes, and whether they reverse after a person stops using the drug.
  • Regular use is linked to an increased risk of psychotic symptoms. That marijuana is linked to increased psychotic symptoms (e.g., delusions, hallucinations, disordered thinking) is fairly clear. But again, it’s been a chicken-and-egg problem, since it’s hard to show whether causation is at play, and which way the connection goes. However, it’s likely that the relationship actually goes both ways: Marijuana may lead to  psychotic symptoms, and early psychotic symptoms may  increase the likelihood that a person will smoke marijuana (particularly if there’s a family history of psychotic disorders).
  • Marijuana is linked to lower educational attainment. When pot smoking begins in adolescence, people tend to go less far in school – but again, a causal relationship hasn’t been demonstrated.
  •  Marijuana  may (or may not be) be a gateway drug. Regular teenage marijuana users are more likely to use other drugs in the future – but again, researchers don’t know whether the link is causal.
  • Marijuana is probably – but modestly – linked to schizophrenia. The study found that marijuana is connected to a doubled risk of a schizophrenia diagnosis in the future. Many previous studies have suggested this connection, but, as always, showing causality is hard. The new study cites a number of well-executed studies that suggest a causal relationship between marijuana and schizophrenia. The authors estimate that marijuana use may double the risk of schizophrenia from 7 in 1000 non-users to 14 in 1000 marijuana users. On the upside, they point out that users who quit using the drug after a first psychotic episode have fewer psychotic symptoms and better social functioning moving forward, compared to people who have a psychotic episode but continue using.
  • Marijuana may be linked to testicular cancer. Its connection to other forms of cancer is not very consistent, but there’s some evidence of an increased risk of testicular cancer in long-term marijuana users.
  • Regular users may have cardiopulmonary issues. Regular marijuana users have a higher risk of developing chronic bronchitis. Marijuana “probably” increases the risk of heart attack in middle age, but it’s hard to know for sure, since many users also smoke cigarettes.

The authors of this particular study were careful not to argue for or against the legalization of marijuana except to say that its legalization should be done with safeties in place.

This 2014 study was published in the journal Addiction.

Sources: Steven Reinberg, http://consumer.healthday.com/public-health-information-30/marijuana-news-759/fewer-teens-smoking-cigarettes-but-twice-as-many-now-smoke-pot-cdc-704275.html

Alice G. Walton, http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2014/10/07/what-20-years-of-research-has-taught-us-about-the-chronic-effects-of-marijuana/

 

 

Your Teen

Acne

Teenage acne can be a traumatic experience for your child. It’s a very common condition, one that impacts over an estimated 17 million people. Dr. Robin Carder, chief of pediatric dermatology at Children’s Medical Center Dallas says acne can be due to a number of things. “Their follicles make more skin cells and that, combined with oil in our skin forms plugs. Once skin is plugged, you get a pimple.”

Dr. Carder says oil is stimulated more in skin during puberty which is sometimes why teens seem to be more impacted. Typically boys get more severe acne than girls. Parents can help their child by encouraging them to gently wash their face twice a day. Dr. Carder says to resist the temptation to scrub as that can aggravate the skin. Teens that have more oily skin should use a wash that contains salicylic acid, which will dry the skin out some. Teens with sensitive skin should use something more gentle like Cetaphil or a Neutrogena glycerin bar. She also says that if your child doesn’t see results from an over-the-counter product within three to four months they should see their pediatrician for a more aggressive treatment. Dr. Carder offers her teenage patients one final tip: “Squeezing and picking is probably the worst thing you can do and it’s probably the fastest way to reach scarring. They heal faster if you leave them alone.”

Your Teen

Half of American Teens Breathe Secondhand Smoke

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We’ve come a long way in this country in regards to making public places free of cigarette smoke, but people in their home or car can smoke as much as they like- and that’s their right to do so. When there are children in those homes and cars – they’re inhaling secondhand smoke and that can have a major impact on their physical wellbeing.

Secondhand smoke is the smoke a smoker breathes out and that comes from the tip of burning cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. It contains about 4,000 chemicals. Many of these chemicals are dangerous; more than 50 are known to cause cancer. Anytime children breathe in secondhand smoke they are exposed to these chemicals. 

Researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Office of Smoking and Health examined data from more than 18,000 middle school and high school students; researchers found that 48 percent reported exposure to secondhand smoke in 2013. Additionally, secondhand smoke exposure was reportedly nine times higher among never-smoking teens with no smoke-free rules in their home and car, compared to those with 100 percent smoke-free rules.

"The findings weren't really a surprise as much as a call for public health action," said study author Brian King, deputy director. "The continuing research [on secondhand smoke] really helps us put a finger on who's exposed and in what location," he said.

According to the study, secondhand smoke exposure is known to contribute to several health problems in children, including respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, middle ear disease and sudden infant death syndrome.

Analyzing questionnaire responses from students in grades 6 through 12 in 2013, King and his colleagues found that 16 percent were exposed to secondhand smoke at home and 15 percent in a vehicle. Additionally, 17 percent reported secondhand smoke exposure at school, 27 percent of those who were old enough to have a job, at work and 35 percent in indoor and outdoor public areas.

"We did assess the extent of exposure based on whether youth were [protected] by smoke-free policies, and it's no surprise that those covered by policies had lower exposure," King said.

Regarding home and car exposure, "I think it really comes down to individual families to take that action," he added.

Dr. Normal Edelman, senior scientific advisor for the American Lung Association, called the research "very useful." He noted that comprehensive public no-smoking policies have helped lower U.S. smoking rates by helping some smokers break the habit.

"We've made great strides in protecting adults from secondhand smoke ... and the health effects have been dramatic," Edelman said. "So now it's time to protect kids from secondhand smoke, and this [study] shows that many of our kids are exposed to at least some secondhand smoke. Clearly, if they live with smokers, they're exposed to a lot, and I think those kids are most at risk."

On a personal note, my mother smoked from the time I was born to after I left home. In those bygone days, most people were not aware of the dangers of smoking and cigarette ads even promoted the “health benefits” from taking a long drag off a cigarette.

Unfortunately for me, the heath benefits were nil. I had bronchitis 2 or 3 times a year and ear infections when I was little. I developed asthma, as I got older.  No one ever made the connection between the constant cigarette smoke in the house and car and my illnesses. I was just considered a rather “sickly child.” Eventually, my mother developed COPD.

Believe me when I say secondhand smoke can become a real health problem for children.

While 26 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and work sites -- including restaurants and bars -- several states have no statewide laws addressing secondhand smoke in public areas, and others have less stringent restrictions.

Source: Maureen Salamon, http://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/adolescents-and-teen-health-news-719/half-of-u-s-teens-exposed-to-secondhand-smoke-study-says-706864.html

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/tobacco/Pages/Dangers-of-Secondhand-Smoke.aspx

Your Teen

College - Bound Vaccinations

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It’s finally here. From the time your child was an infant, you knew this day was coming. He or she is entering college! If your young adult is moving away, there’s shopping, packing, traveling arrangements, paperwork, dorms and good-byes filling up the precious last living-at-home days. 

New opportunities for educational, personal and professional growth are just on the other side of those academic doors. But, there’s one more thing that you need to make sure is taken care- even if your child is remaining home and going to a community or local college.

Vaccinations need to be updated. Many colleges will not allow a student to attend classes, or live in a dorm, if their vaccinations are not updated, and immunization records filed with the school.

Colleges want to know that their students have been vaccinated against the basics - Diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps and rubella. But increasingly, they want to know that their students have been inoculated against bacterial meningitis.

Dorm rooms, fraternities and sororities are breeding grounds for contagious diseases. Unhealthy lifestyles can also lower a person’s immune system. Lack of sleep, unsanitary conditions, bad nutrition, drinking and exposure to cigarette smoke and drugs can put a child at risk for a host of medical problems.

Bringing these topics up is not to say that all college bound students will partake in unhealthy lifestyles, it’s simply a reminder that large populations in close quarters can put you at a higher risk for disease. That’s why colleges are becoming more adamant about student vaccinations.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends college students, especially those living in dormitories, receive these vaccinations:

  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine, which helps prevent meningococcal disease. If they received this vaccine before their 16th birthday, they should get a booster dose before going to college for maximum protection.
  • Tdap vaccine, which protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough.)
  • HPV vaccine, which protects against the viruses that cause most cervical cancers, anal cancer, and genital warts.
  • Seasonal flu vaccine.
  • Another vaccination to consider is the Hepatitis A vaccine, which protects against this serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver.

Be sure and check with your college to see what vaccinations are required, and ask your family doctor or pediatrician about their recommendations.

Entering college is one of those milestones in life. It’s exciting and humbling for kids and parents. Make sure your child has the vaccinations he or she needs as they enter this new world of opportunity!

Sources: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/spec-grps/college.htm

http://www.webmd.com/vaccines/features/vaccines-for-college-students

Your Teen

More Teens Texting While Driving

New study more teens are texting while driving.

One third of teens ages 16 and 17 say they have texted while driving a new study shows. That same study also shows that 48 percent of teens aged 12 to 17 say they have been in a car while the driver was texting.The study was conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. Pew senior research specialist Amanda Lenhart said she was surprised "to hear (from teens) about how it’s often parents or other adults who are doing the texting or talking and driving, and how for many teens, this is scary or worrisome behavior." For its Teens and Distracted Driving study, Pew surveyed 800 teens ages 12 to 17 between June and September. The non-partisan organization also conducted nine focus groups with 74 additional teens in the cities of Ann Arbor, Mich., Denver, Atlanta and New York between June and October, in conjunction with the University of Michigan. "Much of the public discussion around these behaviors has focused on teens as young, inexperienced drivers, but some of the adults in these young peoples' lives are clearly not setting the best example either," said Mary Madden, a Pew senior research specialist who also worked on the survey. "Teens spoke not only of adults texting at the wheel, but also fumbling with GPS devices and being distracted because they're talking on the phone constantly," she said. "And the reactions from the teens we spoke with ranged from being really scared by these behaviors to feeling as though it wasn't a big deal." Among other findings from the Pew survey:
  • 52 percent of teens ages 16 and 17 who have cell phones say they have talked on their phones while driving.
  • 34 percent of teens ages 16 and 17 who text say they have done so while driving.
  • 48 percent of teens ages 12 to 17 say they have been in a car when the driver was texting.
  • 40 percent of teens ages 12 to 17 say they have been in a car when the driver "used a cell phone in a way that put themselves or others in danger."
  • 75 percent of teens ages 12 to 17 have a cell phone, and 66 percent of them send or receive text messages.
Boys and girls are "equally likely to report texting behind the wheel," Pew said, and while a third say they do so, "texting at the wheel is less common than having a conversation on the phone while driving." Pew did not further ask whether that driving and talking on the phone was being done hands-free. The teens in the focus groups had various reasons for texting and driving at the same time, Pew said, including "the need to report their whereabouts to friends and parents, getting directions and flirting with significant others." Some teens "felt as though they could safely manage a quick exchange of texts while the car was stopped. One high-school-aged boy shared that he would text 'only at a stop sign or light, but if it's a call, they have to wait or I'll hand it to my brother or whoever is next to me.' "

 

Your Teen

Teens: Fatal Car Crashes Down

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It seems like there are far too many studies reporting bad outcomes where teens are involved; too much drinking, eating, smoking and risky behaviors.

However, a recent study concludes that fatal car crashes involving teens have dropped by over half in the last decade. Researchers believe one reason may be that more teenagers are receiving driving licenses attached with restrictions.

"Many factors are probably at play, but there is wide agreement the graduated licensing programs are an important contributor to the decline in fatal crashes," lead study author Ruth Shults, an injury prevention researcher at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, said in an to email to Reuters Health.

Graduated licenses may limit teens from diving at night as well as restrict how many teenage passengers can ride in a car with a teen driver.

Shults says that may be partly responsible for reducing the overall crash rate by 20 to 40 percent.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of drivers aged 16 to 19 involved in fatal crashes fell by 55 percent to 2,568 in 2013, down from 5,724 in 2004, supported by an increase in graduated licenses programs.

The numbers may also be down because some teenagers are waiting till they are 18 to get their driving license, said Eric Teoh, a senior statistician at the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in Arlington, Virginia.

"An 18-year-old novice is probably more prepared maturity-wise than a 16-year-old novice," said Teoh, who wasn't involved in the study.

Many parents have changed what they look for in a car for their teenager. Newer models have better safety features - such as electronic stability to help keep the car in line if the driver loses control. That one feature alone may also be a contributing factor in fewer crashes.

Across 42 states included in the survey, the proportion of high school students who drive ranged from about 53 percent to about 90 percent, with the highest rates in the mid-western and mountain states, where population density is low. West coast states including California, Washington and Oregon were among eight excluded from the study.

In cities, fewer students drove, which may be related to family income, shorter travel distances and wider use of public transportation or alternatives such as walking or bicycling.

Nationwide in 2013, about three in four high school students 16 and older reported driving in the past month; the proportion was lower among black and Hispanic teens compared to white youth.

The economy may have also played a role in the reduction of teen drivers. Less dispensable money may have forced teens to look for alternative means such as public transportation, bicycles or walking.

"The economic downturn resulted in changes in the way people drive, with people taking fewer elective trips," said Raymond Bingham, a professor at the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute in Ann Arbor, who wasn't involved in the study.

Leisure trips, as opposed to driving to work or school, are associated with more crashes, Bingham said.

Whatever the reasons, it’s good to know that more of our teenage drivers are living to grow into adulthood and making it pass the turbulent adolescent years.

Source: Lisa Rapaport, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/04/08/us-health-teens-drivers-crashes-idUSKBN0MZ21020150408

Your Teen

Teens and Tanning Booths; Riskier Than Once Thought

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Prom, Homecoming, Pep Rallies, classrooms, malls  – many of the places you’ll find teens during the fall and winter months. As the long sun-filled days of summer fade away, the doors to tanning salons swing wide open. 

While it’s no secret that UVB rays – the ones that cause sunburn – are the main cause of skin cancer, a new study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology shows that UVA rays can in fact cause a serious risk of skin cancer because they target the areas beneath the surface where cells divide to create new layers.

For the study, scientists compared the DNA-damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation by shining both types on the buttocks of 12 healthy volunteers. By cutting away small layers of skin, the researchers found that UVB rays mainly damaged the skin's top layers, but the UVA rays formed lesions on the skin's deepest layers. The study's authors say that's worrisome, because UVA rarely burns the skin, so people - in particular teens - might not realize damage being done.

The study found UVA rays are more carcinogenic than previously thought; a finding scientists say underscores how important it is to limit exposure to the sun and to tanning salons.

"The doses we used were comparable for erythema -- sunburn – for UVA and UVB. That would be roughly equivalent to the doses needed for tanning in each spectrum," said study co-author Antony R. Young, a professor at the St. John's Institute of Dermatology at King's College School of Medicine in London.

"Tanning salons still tend to claim that UVA is safe, but that's nonsense," Young told The Daily Mail, "It may be more carcinogenic than previously thought."

The main concern is preventing skin cancer, particularly melanoma, a very serious and possibly life-threatening type of skin cancer. Teens often think of skin cancer as an “old person’s disease.” In fact, melanoma is one of the most common cancers in young adults (ages 25 to 29). Each year, more than 50,000 people in the U.S. learn that they have melanoma.

"Indoor tanning is like smoking for your skin," said Dr. Doris Day, a dermatologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "It's the single worst thing you can do in terms of skin cancer and premature aging."

Many indoor tanning salons advertise that tanning beds can help boost the body's production of vitamin D, known as the sunshine vitamin because skin makes it when exposed to the sun's rays. "This is nonsense and an excuse," Day said. "We know people burn in tanning beds and that UVA and UVB are toxic."

Since March 2010, The FDA has been considering enacting a ban on tanning booth use for anyone under the age of 18. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health Organization, the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Dermatology support a ban on the use of tanning booths by minors.

While teens may think that a tan gives them a healthy looking glow, parents and caregivers need to help them understand the dangers of tanning. Whether it’s outdoors or indoors – too much UVB / UVA rays can lead to serious health problems.  And of course, parents should teach by example. If mom and dad are spending time in the tanning booth, telling your teen to stay out is not going to have much of an impact. 

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Your Teen

Energy Drinks

Just about every store you go into these days has a shelf of energy drinks, many of them marketed towards our teenage children. “Many are marketed as energy drinks but should be called stimulant drinks” says pediatrician Dr. Sue Hubbard. Many of these drinks contain large amounts of caffeine.”

Dr. Hubbard warns that too much caffeine in a teenager’s system can cause anxiety, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, nervousness and upset stomachs. “It can also mess up a child’s sleep cycle, which is not good” she says. Dr. Hubbard recommends that parents read the labels of the drinks their children are consuming. She also recommends that if you need to hydrate your child during sports or other physical activity, give them water or a true sports drink, like Gatorade, and not energy drinks.

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DR SUE'S DAILY DOSE

What do the new concussion guidelines mean to young athletes?

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