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Your Teen

Young Male Athletes, Parental Pressure and Doping

1:45

When 129 young male athletes, whose average age was 17, were asked what would make them consider “doping” as a way to boost their athletic ability – the majority said parental pressure.

A new study from the University of Kent in England asked the young male athletes about their attitudes on "doping" -- the use of prohibited drugs, such as steroids, hormones or stimulants, to increase athletic competence.

These substances, sometimes called performance-enhancing drugs, can potentially alter the human body and biological functions. However, they can be extremely harmful to a person's health, experts warn.

The study group was also asked about four different aspects of perfectionism. The areas were: parental pressure; self-striving for perfection; concerns about making mistakes; and pressure from coaches.

Only parental pressure was linked to positive feelings about doping among the athletes, the study authors found. Although the study was small, it did point out how important demanding expectations from parents can be to kids. 

Lead author of the study, Daniel Madigan, a Ph.D. student in the university's School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, said the findings suggest that parents need to recognize the consequences of putting too much pressure on young athletes in the family.

"The problem of pressure from parents watching their children play sports is widely known, with referees and sporting bodies highlighting the difficulties and taking steps to prevent it," Madigan said in a university news release.

"With the rise of so-called 'tiger' parenting-- where strict and demanding parents push their children to high levels of achievement -- this study reveals the price young athletes may choose to pay to meet their parents' expectations and dreams," Madigan added.

The researchers only focused on young men for this study but plan to investigate if the same result will occur with young female athletes, and if there are differences between athletes in team versus individual sports.

The study findings are scheduled for publication in the April print issue of the Journal of Sports Sciences.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://teens.webmd.com/news/20160229/young-athletes-pressured-by-parents-may-resort-to-doping

 

Your Teen

College - Bound Vaccinations

1.45 to read

It’s finally here. From the time your child was an infant, you knew this day was coming. He or she is entering college! If your young adult is moving away, there’s shopping, packing, traveling arrangements, paperwork, dorms and good-byes filling up the precious last living-at-home days. 

New opportunities for educational, personal and professional growth are just on the other side of those academic doors. But, there’s one more thing that you need to make sure is taken care- even if your child is remaining home and going to a community or local college.

Vaccinations need to be updated. Many colleges will not allow a student to attend classes, or live in a dorm, if their vaccinations are not updated, and immunization records filed with the school.

Colleges want to know that their students have been vaccinated against the basics - Diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps and rubella. But increasingly, they want to know that their students have been inoculated against bacterial meningitis.

Dorm rooms, fraternities and sororities are breeding grounds for contagious diseases. Unhealthy lifestyles can also lower a person’s immune system. Lack of sleep, unsanitary conditions, bad nutrition, drinking and exposure to cigarette smoke and drugs can put a child at risk for a host of medical problems.

Bringing these topics up is not to say that all college bound students will partake in unhealthy lifestyles, it’s simply a reminder that large populations in close quarters can put you at a higher risk for disease. That’s why colleges are becoming more adamant about student vaccinations.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends college students, especially those living in dormitories, receive these vaccinations:

  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine, which helps prevent meningococcal disease. If they received this vaccine before their 16th birthday, they should get a booster dose before going to college for maximum protection.
  • Tdap vaccine, which protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough.)
  • HPV vaccine, which protects against the viruses that cause most cervical cancers, anal cancer, and genital warts.
  • Seasonal flu vaccine.
  • Another vaccination to consider is the Hepatitis A vaccine, which protects against this serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver.

Be sure and check with your college to see what vaccinations are required, and ask your family doctor or pediatrician about their recommendations.

Entering college is one of those milestones in life. It’s exciting and humbling for kids and parents. Make sure your child has the vaccinations he or she needs as they enter this new world of opportunity!

Sources: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/spec-grps/college.htm

http://www.webmd.com/vaccines/features/vaccines-for-college-students

Your Teen

Cheerleading Still Most Dangerous Sport

Cheerleading continues to cause more serious and deadly injuries by far than other sports.Cheerleading continues to cause more serious and deadly injuries by far than other sports, despite the fact that safety efforts have led to modest reductions in the number of serious injuries in recent years. However, until recently, records about such injuries were poorly kept. An updated to the record-keeping system last year found that between 1982 and 2007 there were 103 fatal, disabling or serious injuries recorded among female high school athletes, with the vast majority, 67, occurring in cheerleading. The next most dangerous sports were gymnastics, with nine such injuries and track, with seven injuries.

Recently the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill released its annual report on the topic. The report defines catastrophic injuries as severe or fatal injury incurred during the participation in the sport. The new numbers for 1982 to 2008 showed that there were 1,116 catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports. Cheerleading accounted for 65.2 percent of high school and 70.5 percent of college catastrophic injuries among all female sports. The report, however, shows that cheerleading injuries fell slightly in the 2007-2008 academic year. “Progress has been slow, but there has been an increased emphasis on cheerleading safety,” said the study’s author Frederick O. Mueller. “Continued data collection on all types of cheerleading injuries will hopefully show that these safety measures are working to reduce injuries.

Your Teen

Teen Athletes Leading the Nation in Tommy John Surgeries

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Teen athletes accounted for more than half of the Tommy John surgeries performed in the U.S. from 2007 to 2011 according to a new study. The surgery is actually an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) graft procedure in which the ulnar collateral ligament in the elbow is replaced with a tendon from elsewhere in the body. Tommy John was the first Major League baseball pitcher to have the surgery and the nickname has now become common use.

 “Our results showed that 15- to 19-year-olds accounted for 56.7 percent of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) or Tommy John surgeries performed in the US between 2007 to 2011," said lead study author Brandon Erickson, MD, of Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, in a press release. "This is a significant increase over time with an average increase of 9.12 percent per year.”

Once a player has the surgery, he or she needs a good 12 to 15 months of recovery time before they are able to return to a high level of sport activity. Oftentimes, a second surgery may be required as the athlete continues to strain the ligament.

Baseball pitchers are the athletes that most often require the surgery because of the way they pitch; overhanded instead of underhanded. Many believe that the problems start in the teenage years with players who throw harder than ever and don't ever take a month off.

Dr. Erickson and his team looked at a private insurance database to identify patients who received UCLR surgeries throughout the US.

About 4 out of every 100,000 patients who had surgery between 2007 and 2011 had a UCLR surgery. These patients were overwhelmingly male, with 32 percent coming from the 15- to 17-year-old age group and 22 percent coming from the 20- to 24-year-old age group.

These surgeries grew at a rate of 4.2 percent each year between 2007 and 2011. And more than half were performed in the southern region of the US.

Another reason many teen athletes are susceptible to injury is that they play only one sport and play year-round, never giving their immature bodies enough time to rest and repair.

According to Dr. Erickson, more attention should be given to prevention because overuse injuries tend to occur in intensive training and high-performance games.

"The research numbers suggest that more young athletes believe that having an UCLR procedure performed earlier in their career may lead to the big leagues or a scholarship, even though only 1 in 200 kids who play high school baseball will make it to the MLB," Dr. Erickson said. "This paradigm shift needs to be evaluated further to help prevent overuse injuries in kids from the beginning of the season when most issues arise."

Some teens simply play through the pain without considering the possible long-term physical problems that could quickly end the career they worked so hard to attain. It’s up to the adults in their lives to watch over and give them the guidance they need to stay healthy. Parents and coaches need to make sure that their kids and students are following the safety rules established by the sport associations and organizations.

This study was presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's annual meeting. Research presented at conferences may not have been peer- reviewed.

Source: Beth Greenwood, http://www.dailyrx.com/tommy-john-surgeries-elbow-overuse-injuries-were-common-teen-athletes

 

 

 

 

Your Teen

Early Puberty and Bone Health

1.50 to read

The normal rate of bone mass decline in adulthood is about 1 to 2 percent each year. This means that a 10 to 20 percent increase in bone density resulting from a naturally early puberty could provide an additional 10 to 20 years of protection against normal age-related decline in bone strength, according to the researchers.A new study suggest the earlier your child starts puberty, the lower the risk he or she will have osteoporosis later in life.

The research was based on 78 girls and 84 boys, who were studied from the time they began puberty until they reached sexual maturity. The investigators found that adult bone mineral density was influenced by age at puberty onset, with greater bone mass linked to early puberty and less bone mass associated with later puberty. However, bone strength did not seem to be affected by how long puberty lasted. "Puberty has a significant role in bone development," study leader Dr. Vicente Gilsanz, director of clinical imaging at the Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles, said in a hospital news release. "During this time, bones lengthen and increase in density. At the end of puberty the epiphyseal plates close, terminating the ability of the bones to lengthen. When this occurs, the teenager has reached their maximum adult height and peak bone mass," Gilsanz explained. Reduced bone mineral density leads to osteoporosis, which affects 55 percent of Americans aged 50 and older. The normal rate of bone mass decline in adulthood is about 1 to 2 percent each year. This means that a 10 to 20 percent increase in bone density resulting from a naturally early puberty could provide an additional 10 to 20 years of protection against normal age-related decline in bone strength, according to the researchers. The study was published in the January issue of the Journal of Pediatrics. Pediatricians have long understood the role of pediatric bone development in osteoporosis prevention. The tween and teen years are critical for bone development because most bone mass accumulates during this time. In the years of peak skeletal growth, teenagers accumulate more than 25 percent of adult bone. By the time teens finish their growth spurts around age 17, 90 percent of their adult bone mass is established. Following the teen years, bones continue to increase in density until a person is about age 30. The need for calcium in the diet. Calcium is critical to building bone mass to support physical activity throughout life and to reduce the risk of bone fractures, especially those due to osteoporosis. The onset of osteoporosis later in life is influenced by two important factors: •   Peak bone mass attained in the first two to three decades of life •   The rate at which bone is lost in the later years Although the effects of low calcium consumption may not be visible in childhood, lack of adequate calcium intake puts young people at increased risk for osteoporosis later in life. Other foods, including dark green, leafy vegetables such as kale, are also healthy dietary sources of calcium. But, it takes 11 to 14 servings of kale to get the same amount of calcium in 3 or 4 8-ounce glasses of milk. In addition to calcium, milk provides other essential nutrients that are important for optimal bone health and development, including: •       Vitamins D, A, and B12 •       Potassium •       Magnesium •       Phosphorous •       Riboflavin •       Protein The role of physical activity in bone development. Weight-bearing physical activity helps to determine the strength, shape, and mass of bone. Activities such as running, dancing, and climbing stairs, as well as those that increase strength, such as weight lifting, can help bone development. For children and teenagers, some of the best weight-bearing activities include team sports, such as basketball, volleyball, soccer, and softball. Studies show that absence of physical activity results in a loss of bone mass, especially during long periods of immobilization or inactivity.

Your Teen

Are Kids Safe With Cell Phones at Crosswalks?

Before you buy that cell phone for your child to keep them safe when they are away from you, parents need to be aware.

Before you buy that cell phone for your child to keep them safe when they are away from you, parents need to be aware. A new study shows that kids who talk on a cell phone may be more likely to step into traffic. The study says children should learn to end phone conversations before they step up to the curb and prepare to step into traffic. Research done at the University of Alabama at Birmingham also shows that older children and more experienced users also don't navigate streets as well while on a cell phone and younger children tended to find gadgets more distracting.

"Kids this age are just learning to cross the street on their own," says David Schwebel, an associate professor and vice chair in the department of psychology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. A third of the 20 million 8- to 12-year-olds in the United States already have a cell phone, with more than half of "tweens" expected to be carrying them by the end of next year, according to market researchers. In the study, which appears in the February 2009 issue of Pediatrics, researchers followed 77 pre-teens individually as they navigated a virtual reality street crossing. The children were first allowed to familiarize themselves with the street scene before actually starting the test. The children were then asked to run through the simulation 12 times, six while on the phone and six while undistracted. The researchers found that children speaking on a cell phone were 43 percent more likely to be hit or to have a close call in the simulated street crossings than kids who weren't on the phone. Researchers also kept track of how many times a child looked left and right before stepping into the street and found that number fell by 20 percent when a phone conversation was going on. There was no difference between boys or girls. "I don't think this means parents should taken phones away from their kids, " says Schwebel. "I encourage families to get cell phones for their children. They're more helpful than harmful, if they're used in a safe way."

Your Teen

Amateur Athletes May Be at Greater Risk For CTE

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Former NFL player and sportscaster, Frank Gilford, passed away in August. Not only was he well known for his on and off the field talents, but his name suddenly became associated with a terrible brain disease that is becoming all too common among former athletes, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE. Gilford’s family said although he died from natural causes he also suffered from the debilitating effects of CTE which can affect thinking, memory, behavior and a person’s mood. His family decided to have his brain studied in hopes of shedding some light on the link between football and traumatic brain injury.  

A new study suggests that an increase of risk for CTE can begin much earlier in life for those who play contact sports where concussions and head trauma are common.

Researchers analyzed the brains of 66 men who had donated their organs to the Mayo Clinic Brain Bank and participated in sports such as football, rugby, wrestling, boxing and basketball while in school. Their brains were compared to the brains of 198 people, including 66 women, who never played contact sports.

CTE was found in the brains of a third of the men who played amateur contact sports. But no sign of the disease was detected in the brains of those who never played contact sports, the researchers said.

"The 32 percent of CTE we found in our brain bank is surprisingly high for the frequency of neurodegenerative pathology within the general population," wrote study author Kevin Bieniek, a pre-doctoral student in Mayo Graduate School's Neurobiology of Disease program.

"If one in three individuals who participate in a contact sport goes on to develop CTE pathology, this could present a real challenge down the road," Bieniek said.

Dr. Dennis Dickson, senior study author and neuropathologist at Mayo Clinic, noted that this study is the first to use newly developed government criteria to diagnose CTE in nonprofessional athletes.

"The frequency with which he [Bieniek] found CTE pathology in former [amateur] athletes exposed to contact sports was surprising," Dickson said. "It is pathology that had gone previously unrecognized."

Some individuals may be at an even greater risk of developing CTE if they have a genetic marker. Researchers have found two genetic markers that may affect the possibility of developing CTE.

"These markers need to be further studied in a larger group of CTE cases, but they could be very important in determining whether an individual is at greater risk of developing these brain changes," Bieniek said.

"The purpose of our study is not to discourage children and adults from participating in sports because we believe the mental and physical health benefits are great," he noted.

"It is vital that people use caution when it comes to protecting the head. Through CTE awareness, greater emphasis will be placed on making contact sports safer, with better protective equipment and fewer head-to-head contacts," Bieniek concluded.

The study was published in the December issue of journal Acta Neuropathologica.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/concussions-news-733/playing-contact-sports-in-youth-may-raise-risk-for-degenerative-brain-disease-705847.html

Your Teen

Teens Waiting Longer For Sex, But Still Taking Risks

"Fifteen- to 19-year-olds have the most sexually transmitted diseases. Even though they are waiting, they are having risky sex and not taking precautions," Weller said. According to Weller, it's important to provide sex education at a young age. "The younger one receives sexual education, the less likely you are to engage in risky sex," she said. Teenage girls in the United States are more likely than boys to have unprotected sex during their first sexual experience, new research indicates.

The finding was a surprise to researcher Nicole Weller, an Arizona State University graduate student working on her doctoral degree in sociology. "I'm looking at the interaction between sexual education and how it impacts young adolescent sexual behavior. This in particular was an interesting finding because males usually report that they are having more sex than females," Weller said in a university news release. Her analysis of data from the National Survey of Family Growth also found that young people are waiting longer than in the past to have a first sexual encounter, but they are contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) earlier than in the past. "Fifteen- to 19-year-olds have the most sexually transmitted diseases. Even though they are waiting, they are having risky sex and not taking precautions," Weller said. According to Weller, it's important to provide sex education at a young age. "The younger one receives sexual education, the less likely you are to engage in risky sex," she said. But the type of sexual education provided in U.S. schools is inconsistent -- from abstinence to STD awareness, and from birth control to pregnancy awareness. "It varies in school districts and from state to state," she added. According to Centers for Disease Control surveys, Texas teens have unprotected sex far more often than the national average. In states and cities with "abstinence-plus" teaching policies, the rate of unprotected sex drops below the national average. Houston, for example, has an abstinence-plus teaching policy, and CDC surveys show Houston teens as below the national average for unprotected sex. Research also shows that younger children seek their parent's advice more than adolescents, who tend to depend more on their friends and the media. Take advantage of the opportunity to talk to your young children about issues of sexual health. Talking to your kids about issues like dating and relationships, STDs, and HIV can leave a lasting impression. This will help you provide your children with information that is accurate and reflects your personal values and principles.

Your Teen

AAP Updates Position on Marijuana Legalization

1:30

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has come out in favor of keeping marijuana illegal, but decriminalizing its use.

The AAP says the penalties for being caught with the weed should be reduced because a criminal record can have a lasting impact on someone’s life making it harder to get a job, apply for loans for education and even finding housing.

Decriminalization of marijuana “takes this whole issue out of the criminal justice system and puts it into the health system, where it really should be,” said Dr. Seth Ammerman, the statement’s lead author from Stanford University in California.

While some people feel that marijuana is as benign as alcohol use, Ammerman says that argument isn’t persuasive, especially when applied to adolescents and young adults.

“It’s not benign for youth,” he said. “It may be benign for adults, but the Academy feels strongly that alcohol is not benign for youths either.”

The statement goes on to state that the negative effects of marijuana on teens are well documented including impaired short-term memory and decreased concentration and problem solving.

Because the drug can affect motor control skills, its use may also contribute to deaths and traffic accidents or injuries.

Another concern is whether smoking pot may affect brain development in younger people.

“There has been some interesting brain development research that shows the brain continues to develop into the mid-20s, and there is some research in regular to heavy users that their brain development is not normal,” Ammerman said.

The Academy also opposes the legalization of marijuana for medical uses that haven’t been evaluated through proper regulatory channels, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

 “These cannabinoids can have therapeutic value, but there have been no studies in children or adolescents.” Ammerman noted.

The Academy does make an exception though "for children with life-limiting or severely debilitating conditions and for whom current therapies are inadequate."

While some medical marijuana advocates said they were pleased with the updated AAP policy, they felt that it was a weak effort.

Source: Andrew W. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/01/26/us-legal-marijuana-pediatricians-idUSKBN0KZ0AK20150126

 

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