Your Teen

Tanning Beds & Teens

Many teens want that sun-kissed glow before the prom, but it comes at a price. Tanning beds are far worse than the sun...Many teens want that sun-kissed glow before the prom, but it comes at a price. Tanning beds are far worse than the sun at causing skin cancer. Dermatologists say the major wavelength found in a tanning salon is the most carcinogenic (cancer-causing) wavelength in the ultraviolet spectrum. Indoor tanning will dramatically increase a child’s odds of getting melanoma, the worst type of skin cancer.

A growing number of states are now requiring teens to get their parent’s permission before they can switch on the tanning bed. Advice to parents? Many experts recommend keeping your children away from the tanning salons and don’t give in because “it’s a special occasion like the prom.” The American Cancer Society recommends applying sunscreen at least 20 minutes before going outdoors and re-apply every 2 hours. The American Cancer Society also recommends performing a skin check on your children to make sure birthmarks, moles or blemishes have not changed in appearance. Check with your pediatrician if you have any questions.

Your Teen

Saliva Test May Detect Depression in Teenage Boys

2.00 to read

It’s not unusual for teenagers to go through challenging times as they mature into adulthood. The years between 13 and 20 are bursting with uncertainty and hormones. Most parents of a teen will tell you that there are times when the term “teenage angst” is an appropriate assessment of their child’s mood.

But sometimes there’s more to a teen’s persistent sulking and troubles with school. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in 50 American kids suffer from depression. And, 8.3 percent of teens suffer depression, for at least a year at a time, compared to about 5.3 percent of the general population. Many of these children will continue to experience depression later in life.

A new study says that a saliva test for teenage boys with mild symptoms of depression could help identify those who will later develop major depression.

Researchers measured the stress hormone cortisol in teenage boys and discovered that the ones with high levels coupled with mild depression symptoms were up to 14 times more likely to suffer from clinical depression as an adult, than those boys with low or normal cortisol levels.

While the test was tried on both teenage girls and boys, it was found to be more effective with the boys.

"This is the emergence of a new way of looking at mental illness," Joe Herbert of the University of Cambridge and one of the study authors said at a news conference on Monday. "You don't have to rely simply on what the patient tells you, but what you can measure inside the patient," he said.

Researchers observed more than 1,800 teenagers aged 12 to 19 and examined their cortisol levels with saliva tests. They also collected the teens' own reports of depression symptoms and tracked diagnoses of mental health disorders in them for up to three years later.

The boys who had high cortisol levels and mild depression symptoms were up to 14 times more likely to suffer from clinical depression when compared to other teens with normal levels, while girls with similarly elevated cortisol levels were only up to four times more likely to develop the condition.

Statistically, girls report suffering from depression more than boys, so why the difference in effectiveness in the saliva tests of the boys and girls tested?

"All hormones, including sexual hormones, influence brain function and behavior," said Dr. Carmine Pariante, a professor of biological psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London. He was not linked to the study.

Pariante said the gender-specific hormones - androgen for males and estrogen and progesterone for females - might react differently to cortisol and could explain the difference in risk for teenage boys and girls.

The saliva test could prove beneficial in helping teenage boys who are at risk for developing clinical depression, by targeting those teens early and providing psychological help before their depression progresses.

"This gives us a biological model to understand mental health problems the way we understand other medical conditions," Pariante said, comparing it to how doctors might diagnose a broken leg based on an X-ray or identify heart disease patients based on high blood pressure or cholesterol readings. "It will help us identify patients at risk so we can try to help them as soon as possible."

Sometimes it’s difficult for parents or guardians to distinguish between the symptoms of mild depression and their teenager’s typical up and down mood swings. Helpguide.org lists these symptoms of depression for teens. There is also more information on their website about depression and teens that you may find helpful.

▪       Sadness or hopelessness

▪       Irritability, anger, or hostility

▪       Tearfulness or frequent crying

▪       Withdrawal from friends and family

▪       Loss of interest in activities

▪       Changes in eating and sleeping habits

▪       Restlessness and agitation

▪       Feelings of worthlessness and guilt

▪       Lack of enthusiasm and motivation

▪       Fatigue or lack of energy

▪       Difficulty concentrating

▪       Thoughts of death or suicide

If you’re unsure if an adolescent in your life is depressed or just “being a teenager,” consider how long the symptoms have been present, how severe they are, and how different the teen is acting from his or her usual self. While some “growing pains” are to be expected as teenagers grapple with the challenges of growing up, dramatic, long-lasting changes in personality, mood, or behavior are red flags of a deeper problem.

If you are concerned that your teen is experiencing depression, talk with your pediatrician or family doctor for a better understanding of what may be going on and references for mental health care.

The Cambridge study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

Sources: Alexandra Sifferlin, http://healthland.time.com/2014/02/18/saliva-test-predicts-risk-of-severe-depression-in-boys/

http://www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_teen.htm

Your Teen

Obesity Study: Teen Diabetes and Heart Disease

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No parent likes to think that his or her child is skating on the edge of disaster. But if your teen is obese – 10 percent higher than what is recommended for their height and body type – they could be at a much higher risk for Type 2 diabetes, a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.

A new study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that half of American overweight teens have unhealthy blood pressure, cholesterol or blood sugar levels.

The rise in Type 2 diabetes among today’s youth is a real concern. The study showed that the percentage of adolescents who were diagnosed with diabetes or pre-diabetes rose dramatically from 9 percent in 1999, to 21 percent in 2008. Pre-diabetics have higher than normal blood sugar levels, but not high enough to count as diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease, is a condition that until recently doctors almost never saw in kids. But that was before the childhood obesity epidemic.

"That's a shockingly high figure that has dire implications to the health of this entire generation of children. This report really sounds the alarm," says David S. Ludwig, a childhood obesity expert at Children's Hospital in Boston.

For the study, researchers from the CDC focused on 3,383 adolescents ages 12 through 19, who were part of an intensive National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that involves interviewing, weighing, measuring and performing medical tests on people across the country.

"It's one thing for an overweight or obese 55-year-old gaining an extra few pounds a year to develop diabetes at age 65 and then have a heart attack. It's a very different thing if the clock starts ticking at age 10," Ludwig says. "Children have so many more years to suffer from the consequences from these serious medical problems related to obesity.”

Diabetic teens will someday be diabetic adults struggling to keep their blood sugar levels under control. They will also be saddled with the possible results of long-term diabetes such as blindness, nerve damage, heart attacks and strokes. The good news is that parents can help their children turn things around now. Young children and teens can avoid these lifetime health problems by losing the extra pounds and getting fit before type 2 diabetes and other health problems have a chance to develop. 

Are parents getting the message that there is an obesity epidemic among this nation’s children? Not as many as should be.  Recent studies have shown that many parents of obese children do not think their child is overweight, particularly if one or both of the parents is obese. If parents don’t take action because they don’t recognize that their child is not merely a few pounds overweight, but clinically obese, their child will pay the price. If you need help figuring out where to start making lifestyle changes, the CDC has a guide to family healthy living on their website at www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/healthy_eating.

Type 2 diabetes and heart disease are not what parents want for their children. That’s why it’s so important that they pay attention to the health issues that obesity can cause. 

"The impact of the epidemic will continue to mount for many years as this generation of children carry these increased risk factors into adulthood and carry the burden of chronic disease for so many years longer than ever has been the case in history," Ludwig notes.

Source: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/05/21/153030283/a-dire-sign-of-the-...

Your Teen

More Teens Taking Ecstasy

2.15 to read

More than two-thirds of these ER patients were between 18 and 29 years old, but a sizable number, nearly 18 percent, were from 12 to 17, the report said, noting Ecstasy use is increasing among teens. More parents are receiving the phone call they dread the most- “this is (local hospital name here) your child is in our emergency room… please come quickly."

According to a new study released by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) medical emergencies relating to the illegal drug Ecstasy jumped 75% between 2004 and 2008. More than two-thirds of these ER patients were between 18 and 29 years old, but a sizable number, nearly 18 percent, were from 12 to 17, the report said, noting Ecstasy use is increasing among teens. The study said in 2008, hospital emergency rooms treated 17,865 patients for Ecstasy related medical problems. In 2004, the number was 10,200. The resurgence of Ecstasy use is cause for alarm that demands immediate attention and action, said SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde in an agency news release. Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, is often used at parties and gatherings by teens that are unaware of its potential dangers. Its reputation as a "club" or party drug can give teens the false impression that casual use of the drug is harmless. Addiction, blurred vision, high blood pressure, heat stroke, muscle cramping and kidney failure are linked to Ecstasy use, the report said. "Amphetamine use continues to be a significant problem for adolescents and young adults. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality," said Dr. Lewis Goldfrank, chairman of emergency medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City. "It remains to be determined how severe the long-term neurotoxic effects may be on the brain," Goldfrank said. "There is no reason for anyone to believe that the use of this drug is safe at some dose -- the risk is consequential at any dose." 31 percent of the ER visits involved Ecstasy use with at least one other drug, while 17.5 percent of patients had combined Ecstasy with four or more other drugs. According to the study, 50 percent of patients 21 or older had used alcohol with Ecstasy compared with 20 percent of those 20 and younger. Cocaine use with Ecstasy was also more likely among people 21 and older (43 percent) compared with those 20 and under (nearly 15 percent), the researchers found. While Ecstasy use alone can present multiple psychiatric and physical problems, the combination of Ecstasy with other drugs can present seriously ill or life-threatening emergencies. Parents are often unaware of Ecstasy use by their child, since teens and young adults tend to use the drug at locations other than at home. There are many website resources dedicated to giving parents, and caregivers, information on the symptoms of Ecstasy use, as well short and long term psychological and physical effects. http://www.educatingvoices.org offers these signs of Ecstasy use and possible long-term medical problems. Signs of Ecstasy Use - Confusion - Panic attacks - Depression - Loss of memory - Headaches - Hallucinations - Sore jaw from involuntary jaw clenching - Grinding teeth - Paranoia - Anxiety - Acne and skin rash - General fatigue Ecstasy Paraphernalia - Pacifiers, Blo-Pop suckers and Popsicle sticks are used to counteract the teeth grinding. - Candy necklaces, Altoids tins, M&M's, Skittles, Tootsie Rolls are used to conceal   Ecstasy tablets. - Glo-Sticks are used for stimulation. - Vick's Vapo Rub is smeared on the inside of a surgical mask and then worn to enhance the dilated bronchi. - Vick's Vapo Inhalers is used to blow into a partners face and eyes to enhance the effects. - Bottles of water are a common sight at parties, used to treat overheating, sweating and dehydration. - Ecstasy is used at all-night dance parties or Rave parties with techno music and laser lights, concerts and in small groups. - Users of Ecstasy have suppressed appetites, thirst and the need to sleep. EEcstasy use can result in effects similar to Alzheimer's. Research suggests Ecstasy use increase the risk of developing Parkinsonism, a disease similar to Parkinson, later in life. In these cases Ecstasy is shown to destroy dopamine neurons, the chemical messenger that is involved in controlling movement, emotional and cognitive responses and the ability to feel pleasure. Ecstasy users risk significant brain damage; damage that is evident through brain scans showing actual holes in the brain. The brain of a young person having used Ecstasy is similar to that of a 60 to 70-year old who has had a number of strokes. If you think your son or daughter is using Ecstasy, or any illegal drug, watch for the warning signs and discuss your concerns with your child. Avoid making direct accusations; instead stay calm and rational during the discussion. Ask a lot of questions and do a lot of listening. Remember, the warning signs of drug use could be connected to emotional problems or physical illnesses not related to drug use. You may want to discuss the possibilities with your Pediatrician or family doctor, and consider taking your son or daughter in for a physical exam to see if a medical condition exists.

Your Teen

Sports Drinks May Damage Teeth

Those sports drinks that your young athlete sips on may be eroding their teeth a new study suggests.040509healthlines1 Those sports drinks that your young athlete loves to sip on may provide an energy boost, but they could also be eroding their teeth a new study suggests. Findings by New York University dental researchers show many popular energy drinks contain levels of acid that can cause tooth erosion, hypersensitivity and staining. The beverages can also cause excessive tooth wear and may damage underlying bone-like material, causing teeth to soften and weaken the researchers say. They also say the drinks may possibly trigger conditions leading to severe tooth damage and loss. "This is the first time that the citric acid in sports drinks has been linked to erosive tooth wear," says Mark Wolff, DDS, professor and chairman of the department of cardiology and comprehensive care at New York University College of Dentistry. He says people who use sports energy drinks for energy should brush their teeth immediately after drinking the beverages. Softened enamel, he says, is highly susceptible to the abrasive properties of toothpaste. The five sports drinks tested were Vitamin water, Life Water, Gatorade, Powerade and Propel Fit Water. The study involved cows' teeth that were cut in half. Half of the specimens were immersed in a sports drink, the other half in water. Cows' teeth were used because of their close resemblance to human teeth. All the teeth immersed in a sports drink softened, but Gatorade and Powerade caused "significant" staining, according to an abstract of the study. Craig Stevens, spokesman for the American Beverage Association, says such studies are unfair and do not present "an accurate or actual picture of the way sports drinks are consumed." "The testing procedures they used are outside the realm of what happens in real life," he says. "Beverages pass right through the mouth, and these beverages have a purpose, and are proven to enhance physical performance. To use them like this is simply providing unhelpful information to consumers." He adds: "To suggest that sports drinks are a unique cause of dental caries or tooth erosion is overly simplistic. Oral health is determined by a variety of factors, including types of food consumed and the length of time foods are kept in the mouth."

Your Teen

Studies: Smoking and Students

1.45 to read

Everyone knows that smoking is really bad for you. But, how do you help kids keep from starting the expensive and nasty habit in the first place? Peer pressure seems to help. And for young adults who are already smokers, what will it take to break the habit? Perhaps being able to breathe better is a key motivator.

Kids as young as 10 admit to sneaking a smoke every once in a while, while 17 percent of high-school students and 5.2 percent of middle-school students admit to being daily cigarette smokers. Many college students bring their habit with them when they enroll.

What helps kids keep from starting to smoke? A new study suggests that kids who are involved in team sports with teammates, who do not smoke, are less likely to start. 

Interestingly, the study showed that girls involved in sports with teammates who do smoke, are more likely to give it a try. Peer pressure seems to have more of an impact among girls.

"This result suggests that peers on athletic teams influence the smoking behavior of others even though there might be a protective effect overall of increased participation in athletics on smoking," study leader Kayo Fujimoto, who conducted the research while at the University of Southern California, said in a journal news release.

Researchers questioned 1,260 sixth through eighth graders about their smoking behavior. The children were middle class, lived in urban areas and ethnically diverse. The study, appearing Feb. 8 in Child Development, found that the more sports the kids played, the less likely they were to smoke.

The authors of the study believe that these findings may be helpful in improving anti-smoking campaigns aimed at children.

"Current guidelines recommend the use of peer leaders selected within the class to implement such programs," said Fujimoto. "The findings of this study suggest that peer-led interactive programs should be expanded to include sports teams as well."

Another recent study focused on college students who smoke.

Researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, studied 327 college students- ages 18 to 24 years old- who participated in a program to help motivate them to quit smoking. More than half the students smoked five to 10 cigarettes a day and had smoked for one to five years.

Participants who quit smoking for two weeks or more reported substantially fewer respiratory symptoms, especially coughing, than those who failed to kick the habit.

"That the benefit of stopping smoking starts in days to weeks -- not years or decades -- is important. Now health care providers can counsel young smokers that their breathing can feel better soon after they stop. This can help to motivate young adults to stop smoking before the severe damage is done," journal editor Dr. Harold Farber, an associate professor of pediatrics in the pulmonology section at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, said in a journal news release.

Smoking has continued to decrease on college campuses, perhaps due to stricter smoking policies. Many colleges prohibit smoking anywhere on campus, and others do not allow smoking within a certain amount of feet from doorways. Cigarettes are expensive as well. Many college students are barely getting by with the increase costs in tuition. Something has to give, and cutting out cigarettes can save a pretty tidy sum. Also, smoking has lost a lot of its “cool” factor. Many students just find it annoying. 

Health professionals are always looking for ways to impress upon young people that smoking isn’t only a social nuisance, it can also become a serious long-term health problem.

Perhaps these studies can offer counselors, parents and friends, new discussion points in the battle to help kids avoid smoking or to help them quit. 

Sources: http://consumer.healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=66152 /  http://www.doctorslounge.com/index.php/news/hd/26596

Your Teen

Teen Marijuana Use Could Have Lasting Effects on Mood, Anxiety

Marijuana use among teens could trigger neurological changes in the developing brain that lead to increased anxiety and stress levels that could persist into adulthood, new animal research suggests.  

Although the finding stems solely from work conducted with adolescent and adult lab rats, the work suggests that certain troublesome changes in levels of the key brain chemicals serotonin and norepinephrine may linger long after marijuana use ceases. "Here, the goal was simply to understand the neurological mechanism that could be underlying the specific phenomenon of depression and anxiety observed in previous studies among adolescents chronically exposed to cannabis," explained study author Dr. Gabriella Gobbi, a psychiatric researcher at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. "And what we found with the animals we worked with is that when those that were exposed to cannabis as adolescents became adults they had low serotonin activity, which is related to depressive behavior, and high norepinephrine levels, which is related to an increase in anxiety and stress," Gobbi continued. "This means," she cautioned, "that cannabis exposure when young seems to cause changes in the adult brain. And these changes could perhaps be irreversible, even if you stop consuming cannabis." The study appears in Neurobiology of Disease. The authors say that the main ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has previously been identified as having an impact on receptors in the brain that regulate cognition and emotion. In addition, they point out that the adolescent brain is perhaps particularly sensitive to both drug use and related stress, given that this is the pre-adult period during which the brain and its neurochemical composition undergoes extensive reshaping and reorganizing. "We were a little bit surprised by our findings because we didn't expect to see such a strong effect on the adult brain from adolescent usage. It was a very significant effect," said Gobbi. "So, in general, I think that what people should take away from this work," she advised, "is that just because it's a plant it doesn't mean that marijuana is harmless. It's a pharmacologically active drug, and it must be used with awareness."

Your Teen

Study: No Health Risks for Kids From Mobile Phones

A new study conducted by the German government shows that radiation from mobile phones has no short-term health impact on children and teenagers. The study, which measured radiation levels in over 3,000 children aged eight to 17 over a 24-hour period, showed there was no direct link between exposure to radiation and health complaints such as headaches and dizziness.

However, the study did say that radiation may still result in longer-term health risks for children as their nervous and immune systems are not fully developed. As a precautionary measure, researchers urged caution in the use of wireless technology, especially for children.

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Your Teen

Sunburn Warnings for Kids and Teens

1.45 to read

It is well known that sun exposure raises the risk of developing skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) occur most frequently — more than 1 million cases are diagnosed yearly. Most develop in older adults, but the incidence is rising in younger people. These cancers are highly curable if found early and removed; nonetheless, about 2,000 people die of these tumors each year, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS).Now more than ever, we encourage children to engage in outdoor physical activity. Being outside without adequate sun protection, however, often leads to sunburn and increases the risk of developing skin cancer.

In the March issue of Pediatrics, an AAP technical report and policy statement updates information about the hazards of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and highlight the dangers of tanning salons. Skin cancer rates rising It is well known that sun exposure raises the risk of developing skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) occur most frequently — more than 1 million cases are diagnosed yearly. Most develop in older adults, but the incidence is rising in younger people. These cancers are highly curable if found early and removed; nonetheless, about 2,000 people die of these tumors each year, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). Melanoma, the third most common skin cancer, occurs mostly in older adults but also is a common cancer in young adults. New diagnoses of melanoma are increasing rapidly, and many skin cancer experts say that melanoma incidence has reached epidemic proportions. The lifetime risk of developing melanoma is about 2% (1 in 50) for white people, 0.5% (1 in 200) for Hispanics and 0.1% (1 in 1,000) for blacks. People at highest risk have light skin and eyes and sunburn easily. Melanoma accounts for only 5% of skin cancer cases but causes more than three-quarters of skin cancer deaths. Although nearly always curable if detected early, metastases melanoma has a grave prognosis. ACS estimated that there were 68,130 new cases and about 8,700 people died of melanoma in 2010. What increases risk? Young people who experience one or more severe, blistering sunburns have a higher risk of developing melanoma later on. Intense intermit- tent sun exposure also raises the risk of developing BCC. In contrast, developing SCC is related to experiencing lower levels of UVR exposure over longer time periods. Each day, more than 1 million people visit one of 50,000 U.S. tanning salons. Teen girls are frequent visitors. Powerful tanning lamps emit high levels of UVR, primarily ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, but also some ultraviolet B (UVB). According to recent evidence, a tanning response means that DNA damage has occurred in skin. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that UVR from artificial sources is a human carcinogen. Many experts believe that dramatic increases in skin cancer, including in young people, may be due in part to increasing use of tanning salons. There is no evidence to suggest a protective effect of salon tanning (the “pre-vacation tan”) against the damaging effects of subsequent sun expo- sure. Advice for families Limiting exposure to UVR can prevent many cases of skin cancer. A program of sun protection is recommended. Children and families should avoid sunburn and sun tanning, wear protective clothing and hats with brims, and apply sunscreen. When feasible, plan outdoor activities to limit exposure to peak-intensity midday sun (10a.m.- 4 p.m.) Sunglasses should be worn when in the sun. Protection comes from a chemical coating applied to the glass; lens color has nothing to do with UV protection. Parents and teens should look for a label stating that sunglasses block at least 98% of UVA and UVB rays. Correctly using sunscreen can prevent sunburn and is believed to protect against SCC. Using sun- screen has not, however, been shown to prevent melanoma or BCC. In addition, concerns have been raised about systemic absorption of sunscreen. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen ingredient, was found in 97% of 2,500 urine samples analyzed as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2003- ’04. Results from studies in animals exposed to certain sunscreen ingredients have shown alterations in reproductive and other organs. Sunscreen ingredients have been detected in breast milk. Although toxicity in infants or young children resulting from sunscreen absorption has not been reported, skin permeability to topically applied products is of concern in the very young, especially in preterm infants. Absorptive and other properties of children’s skin may differ from those of adult skin until children are at least 2 years old. Despite these new concerns, using sunscreen is recommended as part of overall sun protection by the Academy and many other organizations. Overexposure to the sun definitely raises skin cancer risk, and there is no benefit to sunburns or to skin aging. Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher should be used when a person might sunburn. It should be allowed to dry before a person goes outdoors. To be most effective, use sufficient quantities of sunscreen (about 1 ounce per application for an adult); apply it every two hours; and reapply the product frequently after swimming, exercising, sweating or towel drying. Select a “broad-spectrum” sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB. Skin cancer prevention is a lifelong effort. Although time is at a premium for most pediatricians, an important aim is to incorporate advice into at least one health maintenance visit per year, beginning in infancy. Not all children sunburn, but all are at risk of adverse effects of UVR exposure on the eyes and immune system. Teachable moments may be found during visits for sunburns or when a teenager is noted to have a tan.

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DR SUE'S DAILY DOSE

Why it's important to have your child's blood pressure checked.