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Your Teen

Cheerleading: Fewer Sports Injuries, But More Severe

2:00

Cheerleading used to be relatively simple sideline endeavor, but not any more. Today it can be a competitive sport, daring and sometimes dangerous.

It typically rates low in overall sports related injuries according to a recently published study, but because of the changing nature of cheerleading and how injuries are reported – whether as a sport or a nonathletic extracurricular activity- the ratings could change.

Researchers noted that while cheerleading may be more dangerous now than in the past, it still gets kids up and moving.

"Anecdotally, it's pretty clear to most people over the past few decades that cheerleading has shifted from a sideline activity to a competitive sport itself. This may have resulted in an increase in injury," said study author Dustin Currie, a doctoral student in epidemiology at Colorado School of Public Health at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

"We only have five years of data ... but I don't know whether to say it's better for cheerleading to not become a more competitive sport," he added. "If it's getting more children to participate in athletics, it's probably a net positive."

About 400,000 students in the United States participate in high school cheerleading each year, including more than 123,000 involved in competitive "spirit squads" that incorporate stunts, pyramids, tosses and jumps, according to the U.S. National Federation of State High School Associations.

But states classify cheerleading in various ways, with some defining it as a sport and others lumping it with other nonathletic extracurricular activities, Currie said.

The distinction is important because defining it as a sport requires stricter rules regarding practice location and other safety measures, as well as coaching certification requirements, he said.

The new study found that while overall injury rates are low for cheerleading, the injuries that do occur are more severe.

Researchers discovered that concussions were the most common cheerleading injury, involving 31 percent of all injuries. However, concussion rates were significantly lower in cheerleading that all other sports combined as well as other girl sports.

More than half of cheerleading injuries occurred during stunts, with pyramid formations constituting 16 percent and tumbling accounting for 9 percent. Most stunt- and pyramid-related concussions resulted from contact with another person, most commonly their elbow, the study said.

Currie said one way to potentially reduce cheerleading injuries would be for all states to change the classification of cheerleading to a sport and recognize that the "vast majority of high school cheerleaders are athletes" requiring the support of athletic trainers and other appropriate medical staff.

"States need to think about it in terms of cheerleaders being athletes, as they are now, rather than some recreational activity on the sidelines," he said.

The study was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Source: Maureen Salamon, http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/concussions-news-733/as-cheerleading-becomes-more-competitive-concussions-top-list-of-injuries-study-says-706029.html

 

 

Your Teen

HPV Vaccine Safety

1.15 to read

Do you have a teenager?  If so, have they received their HPV vaccine?

HPV stands for Human Papilloma Virus, which may cause cervical and penile cancer, oral cancers and genital warts.  There has been a vaccine available since 2007.

A recent study in the journal Pediatrics looked at vaccination rates for teens and the HPV vaccine. While 80% of teens are receiving their Tdap booster, and 63% of teens are current on their meningococcal meningitis vaccine, only 32% of teens have received all 3 doses of HPV vaccine.

Parents whose teenagers had not received a first HPV vaccine or completed the series often said that the vaccine was “not needed or necessary”.  

Other parents whose children had not received the HPV vaccine and who did not intend to vaccinate their children stated that they “were worried about the safety or side effects of the vaccine”.

The HPV vaccine has had a good safety record and has been shown to be very effective in preventing HPV infections.  The vaccine has been studied in the United States for amost 7 years, and in Europe and Australia for almost 10 years.  

The vaccine does not treat HPV disease, but rather prevents it, so the vaccine needs to be given to adolescents prior to any exposure to the virus.   While many parents feel comfortable discussing sexuality with their children, other parents are uncomfortable with vaccinating their children for a sexually transmitted disease.  

Getting parents to complete the series (which is given over a 6 month period) has also been a hurdle and  the vaccine is not effective until all 3 shots in the series has been completed.

If you have questions about the HPV vaccine, talk to your doctor in order that all of your questions can be answered. I know I have given my 3 children the vaccine and encourage all of my patients age 11 and older to receive the HPV vaccine series. 

Your Teen

Teen’s E-cigarette Use Linked to Family and Friends

2:00

For many teens, e-cigarettes have taken the place of the traditional combustible cigarette. A new study suggests that teenagers are more likely to use electronic cigarettes if their friends or a family member uses them.

It’s a pretty safe bet that no teen ever started smoking traditional cigarettes because they tasted good. More than likely it was because someone thought it was cool, felt like walking on the edge of rebellion, watched family members light up on a daily basis or a friend pressured them to give it a try.

These days, the reasons teens smoke e-cigarettes are pretty much the same as they are for regular cigarettes. However, these new nicotine packed products have a number of appealing differences for those just starting out. They don’t smell bad or leave a lingering aroma, they taste a little like candy, and no one is quite sure whether they are producing unhealthy side effects that will come back to haunt you later in life.

“There is a lot of concern by the public health community that e-cigarettes may be recruiting a whole new group of people who never smoked cigarettes," said lead author Jessica Barrington-Trimis of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles.

Other studies have linked e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use, but this new study suggests that teens who begin smoking with e-cigarettes may belong to their own unique group.  

Researchers found that many of the teens in the study that said they'd recently used e-cigarettes, had never smoked traditional cigarettes. This was their first venture into smoking.

"If you think of e-cigarette and cigarette use as two circles, the overlap isn’t as big as expected," Barrington-Trimis said.

Using data collected in 2014 from 2,084 Southern California teens, the authors found that about 25 percent reported ever using e-cigarettes and about 20 percent reported ever using traditional cigarettes.

This finding is a cause for concern because e-cigarettes were the dominant tobacco product used, and a substantial proportion of e-cigarette users had no history of cigarette use, the authors noted in their report.

Fourteen percent of teens thought e-cigarettes are not harmful, compared to about 1 percent who thought cigarettes are not harmful. The teens also felt their peers were more likely to accept their e-cigarette use than traditional cigarette use.

Like many other studies on the use of e-cigarettes, this one can’t say with absolute certainty that smoking e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional cigarettes. However, the researchers suggest that the more accepted these products become by teenagers, the more they contribute to the “re-normalization” of tobacco products.

"Our findings really suggest there’s a lot of kids who are using these e-cigarettes," Barrington-Trimis said.

The lack of research makes it difficult to know what to tell people about e-cigarettes, she added.

She said parents should tell their children that while research into the health effects of e-cigarettes is still in its infancy, nicotine is known to impact youngsters' developing brains.

Nicotine is also highly addictive and one of the most difficult drugs to break free from.  The longer you smoke – whether it’s e-cigarettes or combustible cigarettes – the harder it is to quit. Plus, little is known about the chemicals used to create the sweet tasting flavors of e-cigarettes.

Parents should make sure they know if their child or their child’s friends are using e-cigarettes. Unfortunately in this day and age, discussions about smoking and drug use have to begin early in a child’s life. Waiting till your child is a pre-teen or teenager to talk about e-cigarettes may be too little too late.  

Source: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/07/27/us-health-teens-smoking-ecigarettes-idUSKCN0Q11YC20150727

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2015/07/21/peds.2015-0639.full.pdf+html

Your Teen

FDA Proposes Ban on Tanning Beds for Minors

1:30

When warm summer days give way to cold gray skies, tanning beds can become the go-to alternative for a continuous tan. A 2014 study found that 59% of college students and 17% of teens use indoor tanning beds and a 2011 study reported that 32% of 12th graders had used a tanning bed.

Researchers have also found that people who use tanning devices before age 20 were twice as likely to develop a form of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma by age 50, than those who had never used a tanning bed. Tanning beds are known to contribute to other skin cancers as well, including melanoma, the deadliest form of the disease.

Several studies from Europe have suggested that the radiation from a tanning bed can be up to 15 times more intense than the radiation from the midday sun.

After years of studies, the U.S. Food And Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing a ban on tanning beds for people under the age of 18, along with new preventive measures that reduce the risks from tanning to adults.

Using tanning beds at a young age can be particularly harmful, according to a statement from the FDA. The effects of UV radiation exposure add up over a lifetime, so exposure in children and teenagers puts them at greater risk for skin and eye damage later in life, according to the statement.

How many minors are using tanning beds? According to a 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Study, about 1.6 million adolescents.

The "action is intended to help protect young people from a known and preventable cause of skin cancer and other harms," Dr. Stephen Ostroff, the acting FDA commissioner, said in the statement.

The American Academy of Pediatrics responded to the FDA's proposal with a statement of support.

"The FDA's action today is part of ensuring a safe environment for every child and adolescent, and sends a loud and clear message: Tanning beds are dangerous and should not be used by anyone under age 18," said the academy. "Pediatricians welcome FDA's action and will continue to urge parents and our young patients to protect their skin from ultraviolet radiation and to avoid tanning beds altogether."

In addition to restricting minors, the FDA is proposing that before a person's first tanning bed session and every six months thereafter, they sign a "risk acknowledge certification" that states they have been informed of the health risks that may result from indoor tanning. The hope is that people will think twice about using a tanning bed of they are reminded and have to sign off on the health dangers.

The FDA is also proposing a second rule that would require sunlamp manufacturers and tanning facilities take extra steps to improve the overall safety of the devices. Some of the proposed measures would include making warnings more prominent on the devices, requiring an emergency off switch or "panic button" and improving eye safety equipment, according to the statement.

"The FDA understands that some adults may continue to use [tanning beds]," Ostroff said in the statement. "These proposed rules are meant to help adults make their decisions based on truthful information," he said.

The new proposed rules are available for public comment for 90 days. The rules were recommended on December 21, 2015.  To comment you can log onto http://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm350790.htm#Proposed

Source: Sara G. Miller, http://www.livescience.com/53159-fda-proposes-tanning-bed-restrictions.html

 

 

 

 

Your Teen

AAP Updates Position on Marijuana Legalization

1:30

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has come out in favor of keeping marijuana illegal, but decriminalizing its use.

The AAP says the penalties for being caught with the weed should be reduced because a criminal record can have a lasting impact on someone’s life making it harder to get a job, apply for loans for education and even finding housing.

Decriminalization of marijuana “takes this whole issue out of the criminal justice system and puts it into the health system, where it really should be,” said Dr. Seth Ammerman, the statement’s lead author from Stanford University in California.

While some people feel that marijuana is as benign as alcohol use, Ammerman says that argument isn’t persuasive, especially when applied to adolescents and young adults.

“It’s not benign for youth,” he said. “It may be benign for adults, but the Academy feels strongly that alcohol is not benign for youths either.”

The statement goes on to state that the negative effects of marijuana on teens are well documented including impaired short-term memory and decreased concentration and problem solving.

Because the drug can affect motor control skills, its use may also contribute to deaths and traffic accidents or injuries.

Another concern is whether smoking pot may affect brain development in younger people.

“There has been some interesting brain development research that shows the brain continues to develop into the mid-20s, and there is some research in regular to heavy users that their brain development is not normal,” Ammerman said.

The Academy also opposes the legalization of marijuana for medical uses that haven’t been evaluated through proper regulatory channels, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

 “These cannabinoids can have therapeutic value, but there have been no studies in children or adolescents.” Ammerman noted.

The Academy does make an exception though "for children with life-limiting or severely debilitating conditions and for whom current therapies are inadequate."

While some medical marijuana advocates said they were pleased with the updated AAP policy, they felt that it was a weak effort.

Source: Andrew W. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/01/26/us-legal-marijuana-pediatricians-idUSKBN0KZ0AK20150126

 

Your Teen

“See it before you sign it”. Fire Safety for Off College Campus Living

1:45

Whether it’s in the spring, fall, winter or summer, many college kids will eventually move to off campus living quarters. Parents and students typically have time to do research on the areas around campus that are for rent. However, there are some fire prevention safety tips that you might not have thought about.

The best advice to help keep your college student safe is… don’t sign on the dotted line until you’ve actually seen the apartment or house.

Why? Because about seven people every year, die in fires in dorms, fraternities, sororities and off-campus housing.

Since 2000, nearly 120 people have died in campus fires, according to a U.S. Fire Administration (USFA).

Off-campus housing tops the list for fires.

Most (94 percent) fatal campus fires took place in off-campus housing, according to incidents examined by USFA between 2000 and 2015.

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has teamed up with USFA, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and Campus Firewatch to help get this warning out. Don’t sign a contract for housing until you see it yourself. That goes for Mom and Dad too. See it, take a housing tour and make sure you look for:

#1 Working smoke alarms

Make sure there are working smoke alarms on every level and inside each bedroom. Smoke alarms save lives. Fire sprinklers add lifesaving protection too.

USFA found that smoke alarms were missing or did not have batteries in 58 percent of fatal campus fires. None of the fatal fire locations had fire sprinklers.

#2 Two ways out of each room for a safe escape. Make sure all windows and doors open easily. You need to be able to get out if there is a fire. Two ways out are best.

#3 Campus or off-campus housing that can handle today’s electric power needs.

Laptop computers, phones, televisions and coffee makers take a lot of power. Some older homes may not be able to handle all the electrical demand by today’s students. USFA found that electrical issues caused 11 percent of the fires.

#4 Be in the know.

Make sure that your college student knows how to be responsible around alcohol and smoking. The USFA study found these two things involved in the majority of the fires.

Also, if your child is going to be cooking his or her own meals, a discussion about keeping an eye on the food when it is cooking and avoiding distractions is a necessity.

College is a time of new and exciting beginnings. Be sure to “See it before you sign it” for off-campus housing so that an overlooked danger doesn’t have a chance to bring precious college years to an abrupt and devastating end.

Story source: http://onsafety.cpsc.gov/blog/2016/04/04/see-it-before-you-sign-it/

Your Teen

Schools Start Too Early, Teens Sleep Deprived

2:00

It’s a battle that is picking up steam, whether to start school a little later so teenagers can get the sleep they need or keeping schedules as they are for the sake of planning before and after school activities.

Research from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) found that teenagers are biologically programmed to go to bed later than most adults and sleep later in the morning.

Last year, the AAP issued a set of guidelines recommending that school schedules are modified across the U.S. to start at 8.30 a.m. This way, children and teens would be able to meet the recommended sleep hours per night during school days.

Fewer than one in five middle and high schools in the United States start at 8:30 am or later, as recommended, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The same recommendations suggested that indeed, the biological rhythm of teenagers particularly is very different than that of adults. While they need 8 and a half to nine and a half hours of sleep per night, their circadian rhythm doesn’t allow them to go to sleep before midnight or a little after.

School nights are particularly difficult for adolescents because in order to get the rest they need, they have to go to bed earlier than their minds and bodies are set to fall asleep.

The CDC released a new study supporting the recommendations of the AAP. According to the findings, 83 percent of U.S. schools still start before 8:30 a.m. On average, the starting time was calculated at 8:03 a.m., based on data collected from 39,700 combined schools, middle schools, and high schools between 2011-2012.

Depriving teens of that sleep could wreak havoc on their academic performance, the CDC said in its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

"Getting enough sleep is important for students' health, safety, and academic performance," said Anne Wheaton, lead author and epidemiologist in CDC's Division of Population Health.

"Early school start times, however, are preventing many adolescents from getting the sleep they need."

The issue is driving a heated debate between supporters of later school start times and school administrators.

Safwan Badr, former president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine stated:

“It makes absolutely no sense. You’re asking kids to learn math at a time their brains are not even awake”.

On the other hand, Daniel Domenech, the executive director of the School Superintendents Association stated with regards to changing school starting time:

“It’s a logistical nightmare. This has been going on forever, and kids have been graduation from school and going to college. It certainly doesn’t seem to have hurt them all these years”.

Some experts note that the long-term consequence of sleep deprivation is hurting our teens and has been for quite some time.

Judith Owens, the director of sleep medicine at Boston’s Children Hospital suggests that chronically sleep deprivation characterizes the majority of today’s teens. This results in increased risk of onset depression, substance abuse, unhealthy BMIs. Long-term effects of sleep deprivation result in type 2 diabetes or heart diseases.

There are things that parents can do to help their teens at least rest better if they can’t fall asleep earlier. The first and foremost agitator for sleep is viewing or being on a computer or smartphone right before bed.

Recent studies have shown that the use of any electronic device in the hour before bedtime was associated with an increased risk of taking longer than 60 minutes to fall asleep. In particular, the use of a computer, smartphone or MP3 player in the hour before bedtime was strongly linked with taking longer to fall asleep.

Make your teen’s bedroom a quiet place that can be a retreat at night from busy schedules and social media.

Your teen can take a hot bath or shower before bed to boost deep sleep. Then keep his or her room cool (about 68 F) to cool down the body. One study showed that sleep happens when the body cools. Wakefulness occurs when the body temperature warms up.

Aromatherapy helps some people fall off to sleep. Certain scents are shown to be relaxing such as orange blossom, marjoram, chamomile, and lavender. You can apply these oils before bed or put them on pillows, sheets or in potpourri. If candles are used, make sure they are put out before getting in bed. 

Having a regular schedule can help the body adjust. Going to bed at the same time each night can assist in adjusting the body’s circadian rhythm.  

More high schools are considering changing their schedules to a later start time, but currently most schools are keeping with the typical earlier schedules. You may not be able to convince the school board to start school at little later, but you can help your teen find what works for them at night to help them get the amount of sleep they need to function at their best.

Sources: Bonnie Gleason, http://www.trinitynewsdaily.com/chronically-sleep-deprived-teens-need-schools-starting-time-changed/3209/

http://www.ctvnews.ca/health/u-s-teens-start-school-too-early-need-more-sleep-study-1.2506322

http://teens.webmd.com/features/8-ezzz-sleep-tips-teens

 

 

 

Your Teen

E-cigarette Ads Successfully Targeting Adolescents

1:45

Nicotine is addictive and one of the hardest drugs to kick. That’s one of the reasons that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC) is suggesting tighter controls on e-cigarette sales to minors.

"The same advertising tactics the tobacco industry used years ago to get kids addicted to nicotine are now being used to entice a new generation of young people to use e-cigarettes," said CDC Director Tom Frieden.

E-cigarette companies are revisiting the same themes that helped hook older generations on cigarettes and it’s working. Ads are focusing on sex, independence and rebellion to lure youngsters into trying e-cigarettes along with the notion that e-cigarettes are not harmful like regular cigarettes.

The marketing strategy could reverse decades of progress in preventing tobacco use among youth, warned the CDC that suggested tighter controls on e-cigarette sales to reduce minors' access.

The CDC's National Youth Tobacco Survey found that 68.9 percent of middle- and high-school students saw e-cigarette ads from one or more media sources in 2014, most commonly in stores but also online, on television and in movies or magazines.

E-cigarette use among this age group soared over the past five years, surpassing its use of regular cigarettes in 2014, according to CDC statistics. Spending on e-cigarette advertising also jumped, increasing to an estimated $115 million in 2014 from $6.4 million in 2011.

The science is still out on whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. It sometimes takes years for reliable long-term effects. However, there is plenty of evidence that nicotine addiction is not good for you.

"Youth use of tobacco in any form (combustible, noncombustible or electronic) is unsafe," the CDC study said.

Exposure to tobacco at a young age may cause addiction and lasting harm to brain development, the agency reported.

Most states have passed laws banning the sale of e-cigarettes to minors, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's proposal to regulate the products is under federal review.

The next move may be proposing regulation on e-cigarette advertising geared at adolescents.

Source: Barbara Liston,  http://www.reuters.com/article/usa-ecigarettes-idUSL1N14P13P20160105

 

 

 

 

 

Your Teen

Sugary Drinks May Increase Early Menstruation in Girls

2:00

The consumption of sugar-filled beverages has been linked to an increased risk of childhood obesity and type2 diabetes. A new study shines another light on the association between high-sugar drinks and young girl’s potential health problems.

Researchers found that, on average, girls who consumed more than 1.5 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages started menstruation 2.7 months earlier than girls who consumed two or fewer servings of these drinks each week.

The team said their findings raise concerns because earlier menstruation has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. They say a 1-year decrease in age at first menstruation is estimated to raise the risk of breast cancer by 5%. "Thus, a 2.7-month decrease in age at menarche likely has a modest impact on breast cancer risk."

In another study, early menstruation has also been linked to a slight increase of risk for hypertension, heart attack and stroke.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately half of the US population consumes sugary drinks on any given day, including around 60% of females aged 2-19 years.

This latest study is the first to associate sugary drink consumption in girls with the age of first menstruation, or menarche.

To reach their findings, Prof. Karin Michels, associate professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, and her team analyzed 5,583 girls aged 9-14 years who were a part of the Growing Up Today Study, which involves 16,875 children of participants from the Nurses Health Study II.

At the beginning of the study in 1996, none of the girls had started their periods. In a follow-up in 2001, 159 girls (3% of the participants) had started menstruation.

During the 5-year study, the girls were required to complete a dietary questionnaire that revealed their consumption of sugary drinks. The drinks contained added sugars such as sucrose, glucose and corn syrup.

They were also asked how often they consumed the drinks.

The team found that at any age between 9 and 18.5 years, girls who consumed more than 1.5 servings of sugary drinks each day were approximately 24% more likely to begin menstruation in the next month than girls who drank two or fewer servings each week.

Overall, the girls who drank the most sugar-laden drinks began their periods aged 12.8 years, while those who drank the least amount began menstruation at age 13.

These results remained significant even after the researchers accounted for other factors that could influence the age of first menstruation, such as body mass index (BMI), birth weight, height physical activity, ethnicity/race, family composition and how often the girls ate dinner with their family.

The team notes sugary drinks have a higher glycemic index than naturally sweetened drinks, which can trigger a rise in insulin concentrations. An increase in insulin concentrations can lead to a rise in concentrations of sex hormones, which can cause earlier menstruation - a potential explanation for the team's findings.

While drinking too many sugary drinks may lead to early menstruation in young girls, the more pressing health problem is likely to be obesity and type2 diabetes. These are problems that can lead to more serious health issues over a child’s lifetime.

Helping children understand the health benefits of laying –off these kinds of drinks (whether regular or artificially sweetened), when they are young will make it much easier for them to resist getting hooked by the time they reach the age of puberty.

The study’s findings were published in the journal Human Reproduction.

Source: Honor Whiteman, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288587.php

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