Your Child

Lice

Lice are a common problem in school-aged children and can be hard to get rid of. Lice can live for 24 to 48 hours on the human head and have a 21-day life cycle. The eggs, or nits, of lice can usually be seen in the hair and can cause itching. The Kid’s Doctor, pediatrician Dr. Sue Hubbard says that you should only treat the person with an infestation. It is normally not necessary to treat the entire family or the entire house. The most common form of treatment is to use an over-the-counter product, like Nix, that contains permethrin.

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However, Dr. Sue warns, these are sometimes not effective. “We are seeing more and more drug resistance to over-the-counter products that are out there for lice and it’s become more and more difficult to treat lice because of this.” Dr. Hubbard still recommends you use a permethrin product, but after two days if you still see lice in the head you should use a different product. “If that happens, you need to contact your pediatrician and ask for a ‘second-line’ drug, which is prescription. It’s called Ovide and it contains malathion. That is combination with isopropyl alcohol and tea tree oil seems to be more effective than current over-the-counter products,” she says. Dr. Hubbard says there is no need to try any of the urban legends of treatment like shaving, using gasoline or kerosene or even trying to suffocate with mayonnaise or olive oil. “Lice don’t have lungs, so you can’t smother them.” Dr. Hubbard also says it is important that you follow the directions for the product and continue with follow-up treatments.

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Kid’s Tummy Ache Most-Likely Constipation

2.00 to read

It’s a common ailment – particularly around the time your little one is supposed to get ready for school – the illusive tummy ache. Is it real or just a made up reason to avoid going to school?  Knowing your child very well is probably the only way you’re going to know for sure, but you should also take into account how severe the pain appears to be. 

Turns out that a recent study found that constipation is the most common reason for abdominal pain among children going to the emergency room.

Appendicitis is always a concern when someone complains of bad stomach pains but researchers noted that only about 4 percent of the children, who went to the ER with a tummy ache, were diagnosed with appendicitis.

The study, led by Kerry Caperell, MD, of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, looked at the outcomes of children who went to the emergency room for abdominal pain.

The researchers investigated the medical records of 9,424 children, aged 1 to 18, who went to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh emergency department for abdominal pain during a two-year period.

They found that more than half of the children received multiple diagnoses for their complaints. Appendicitis was less common among younger children, but constipation was commonly diagnosed for all ages.

More than 20 percent of the children were diagnosed with constipation and for kids, ages 5-12 years of age; the diagnosis went up to 25 percent.

Diagnosing causes of abdominal pain in children can often be difficult, especially the younger they are," said Chris Galloway, MD, a dailyRx expert who specializes in emergency medicine.

"Fortunately common causes are still common and constipation is a frequent diagnosis we make in the ER, and can be quite distressing for your child," Dr. Galloway said. "Consult your pediatrician if your child has abdominal pain."

Older children seem to have more serious ailments and were more likely to remain in the hospital and have an operation related to the reason they went to the ER.

The study was published in the journal Pediatrics.

What causes constipation in children? Constipation is common in children and typically is not an indicator of bowel problems late in life, but can be very uncomfortable. If your child has had a painful bowel movement because the stool was hard and difficult to pass, he or she may try to hold their stools. This creates a viscous cycle, where bowel movements are painful, so he holds them in, causing his stools to be even larger and harder, which causes more pain when it finally does pass. Many parents mistake the behaviors that children develop to hold in stool as straining to have a bowel movement, but they are usually stiffening their muscles or fidgeting as an attempt to hold their stool in and avoid a painful bowel movement.

Children with special needs, such as spina bifida, Down syndrome, mental retardation and cerebral palsy, often experience constipation that may be related to certain medications.

Infants that are constipated should be evaluated by their pediatrician.

Making changes in your child’s diet can often treat constipation. Fiber is important for good bowel movements in children as well as adults. The usual recommendation is that children should have 5-6 grams of fiber plus their age in years each day. So a 4 year old should have 9-10 grams of fiber each day.

Sometimes dairy products can cause constipation. Cow’s milk, yogurt and cheese can cause constipation and how much is too much is something that parents have to experiment with. Some children can drink a lot of milk and never get constipated, while others don’t have to drink much at all before they end up with a bad tummy ache. For children that drink a lot of milk, soy milk is a good alternative, as it is usually much less constipating than cow's milk.

Vegetables that are high in fiber include beans, especially baked, kidney, navy, pinto and lima beans, sweet potatoes, peas, turnip greens and raw tomatoes. Other foods that are good for children with constipation include vegetable soups (lots of fiber and added fluid), and popcorn. Extra bran can also be helpful, including bran cereals, bran muffins, shredded wheat, graham crackers, and whole wheat bread.

It takes awhile for dietary changes to help manage constipation; in the meantime there are some common medications that can be administered. Be sure and only give the recommended pediatric doses. A child’s age can play a role in which medications your pediatrician will recommend so check with him or her first before trying any over-the counter medicines.

Sources: http://www.dailyrx.com/abdominal-pain-children-emergency-room-was-most-commonly-constipation

http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/l/aa081200.htm

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New Retailers Added to Peanut Butter Recall

1.45 to read

A recent recall for peanut butter manufactured by Sunland Inc., and sold at Trader Joe’s, has expanded its list of grocery stores and nuts and butters. The peanut butter originally recalled is “Trader Joe’s Creamy Salted Peanut Butter.”

Sunland Inc. has widened its recall of peanut butter and almond butter to include cashew butters, tahini and blanched and roasted peanut products. The company, which sells its nuts and nut butters to large groceries and other food distributors around the country, recalled products under multiple brand names last month after salmonella illnesses were linked to Trader Joe's Creamy Salted Valencia Peanut Butter, one of the brands it manufactures.

In addition to Trader Joe's, the recall includes some nut butters and nut products sold at Whole Foods Market, Target, Safeway, Fresh & Easy, Harry and David, Sprouts, Heinen's, Stop & Shop Supermarket Company, Giant Food of Landover, Md. and several other stores. Some of those retailers used Sunland ingredients in items they prepared and packaged themselves.

The FDA has listed product names in alphabetical order on their website at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/CORENetwork/ucm320413.htm.

The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there are now 30 salmonella illnesses in 19 states that can be traced to the Trader Joe's peanut butter. No other foods have been linked to the illnesses, but Sunland recalled other products manufactured on the same equipment as the Trader Joe's product.

Some of the brand names included in the recall are Target's Archer Farms, Safeway's Open Nature, Earth Balance, Fresh & Easy, Late July, Heinen's, Joseph's, Natural Value, Naturally More, Peanut Power Butter, Serious Food, Snaclite Power, Sprouts Farmers Market, Sprouts, Sunland and Dogsbutter.

Sunland's recall includes 101 products, and several retailers have issued additional recalls including items made with Sunland ingredients.

Almost two-thirds of people who reported being ill from the products, were children under the age of 10. Children are often given peanut butter as a healthy snack or treat.  

Those sickened reported becoming ill between, June 11 to September 11th.

The salmonella bacteria can cause diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps 12 hours to 72 hours after infection. It is most dangerous to children, the elderly and others with weak immune systems.

If you have one of these products, you can return it to the store where it was purchased, or you can throw it out.  If it in doubt, throw it out. Salmonella can make someone, especially a child, very ill.

Sources: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/peanut-butter-recall-includes-major-retailers/story?id=17370232#.UGsiJrQuqcM

http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/CORENetwork/ucm320413.htm.

Your Child

Melatonin May Ease Sleep Problems in Autistic Children

A very small study shows that over-the-counter melatonin supplements may help treat sleep problems in children with autism. The study included 12 children, aged two to 15 years with autism spectrum disorder, fragile X syndrome (FXS) or both. The participants were randomly selected to take melatonin or a placebo for two weeks. After they completed the first two weeks of the study, the children were switched over to the alternate treatment for another two weeks.

The findings, which are published in the April 15, 2009, issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine shows that taking the melatonin increased sleep duration by 21 minutes. It also shortened sleep-onset latency by 28 percent and reduced sleep-onset time by 42 minutes, compared to the placebo. Over-the-counter melatonin supplements benefit children of all ages and help alleviate some of the additional stress experienced by parents of special-needs children, said senior author Beth L. Goodlin-Jones, of the M.I.N.D. Institute at the University of California Davis Health System in Sacramento. "Sleep-onset problems at the beginning of the night are very troublesome for children and their families. Sometimes children may take one or two hours to fall asleep, and often they disrupt the household during this time," she said. Goodlin-Jones and her colleagues noted that sleep problems occur in up to 89 percent of children with autism and 77 percent of children with FXS, an inherited form of mental impairment that's the most commonly known cause of autism. The researchers recommended that over-the-counter melatonin supplements, behavior therapies and sleep hygiene practices should be used to manage sleep problems in children with autism and FXS.

Your Child

Brita Recalls Children’s Water Bottles

1:45 to read

Brita is recalling approximately 242,500 children's water filter bottles due to a possible laceration hazard.

The company said Tuesday that the lid of the hard-sided bottles can break into pieces with sharp points.

Brita has received 35 reports of lids breaking or cracking. No injuries have been reported.

The recalled bottles include a violet bottle with Dora the Explorer, a pink bottle with Hello Kitty, a blue bottle with SpongeBob Square Pants and a green bottle with Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Each bottle has a Brita logo and white lid.

The bottles are 6 inches tall and hold 15 ounces of liquid. They have fold-up straws and filters that sit inside the straw below the lid.

The removable plastic wrap on the bottle at time of purchase has model number BB07. The following UPC codes were used:

  • 60258-35883 on the Dora the Explorer
  • 60258-35914 on the Hello Kitty
  • 60258-35880 on the SpongeBob Square Pants
  • 60258-35882 on the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

The bottles were priced between about $13 and $19. They were sold online at Amazon, Target and Drugstore.com. They were sold at stores including Alaska Housewares, Associated Food Stores, Bartell Drug, C Wholesale Grocers, Quidsi, Royal Ahold, Shopko, Target, US Navy Exchange and Walmart.

Consumers are advised to immediately stop using the bottles and to contact Brita for a postage-paid shipping package to return the bottles for a full refund. Brita can be reached at (800) 926-2065 from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. ET Monday through Friday. Individuals may also visit www.brita.com and click "Safety Recall" for more information.

Source: http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory/brita-recalling-childrens-water-bottles-25032799

Brita water bottle recall

Your Child

It’s Time to Register Your Child for Summer Camp!

1.45 to read

I know, you just got through the holidays and things are beginning to settle down and feel normal again. Guess what? If you’re planning on sending your child to summer camp- you better get busy.

Summer camp registration seems to starts earlier every year.  While the population growth of youngsters has remained pretty steady, the number of children wanting to attend either day camps or overnight camps is increasing. Summer camps fill up quickly and to meet the demand, camps are opening registration much sooner than in years gone by.

Early registration can also save you money. Many camps give a discount for parents who are willing to prepay early.  February looks to be a common open registration month, but some camps are offering online registration now. The most popular camps fill up quickly, so get your checkbook or credit card ready.

Many parents depend on day camps to help cover childcare during the summer months. The range of camps that are available is truly astonishing. I wish I had the choices kids have today when I was little. There are sports camps, science camps, special needs camps, cheerleader camps, arts camps, religious camps, health camps, adventure camps, academic camps – you get the point. If your child has a particular interest, there’s probably a camp that’s just right for him or her.

Not only do camps offer young children a variety of activities during the summer months, they can also offer your teen employment. With over 11 million children heading off to camp this summer, camps need employees. According to the American Camp Association, there are more than 12,000 day and resident camps in the U.S.  Those camps need temporary staff to help run them. If your teen is over 16 years of age, he or she may qualify.

The great thing about your teen working at a summer camp is they can apply at camp that suits their interests. Like music? Apply at a music camp! Summer camp jobs offer wonderful insight into others and while the work may be hard, it’s often very rewarding. Oh, and I forgot, they make their own money too.

Even though the temperatures are still dipping to freezing at night, if you’re planning on letting your child attend summer camp, you might want to start the research and registration now!

 

Your Child

What to Do If Your Child Is Choking

2.30 to read

It’s more common than you probably think. On average over 12,000 children a year, under the age of 14, are treated in hospital emergency rooms for food-related choking. That’s about 34 kids a day according to a new study.

The most common choking hazards appear to be hard candy, followed by other types of candy, then meat and bones. The study noted that most of the young patients were treated and released, but around 10 per cent were hospitalized.

"These numbers are high," said Dr. Gary Smith, who worked on the study at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

What's more, he added, "This is an underestimate. This doesn't include children who were treated in urgent care, by a primary care physician or who had a serious choking incident and were able to expel the food and never sought care."

The estimated 12,435 children ages 14 and younger that were treated for choking on food each year also doesn't include the average 57 pediatric food-choking deaths reported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention annually, the researchers noted.

Smith and his colleagues analyzed injury surveillance data covering 2001 through 2009.

They found that babies one year old and younger accounted for about 38 percent of all childhood ER visits for choking on food. Many of those infants choked on formula or breast milk.

Children who choked on hotdogs, nuts and seeds were the most likely to be hospitalized.

"We know that because hot dogs are the shape and size of a child's airway that they can completely block a child's airway," Smith told Reuters Health, noting that seeds and nuts are also difficult to swallow when children put a lot in their mouths at once.

Supervision is the most important choking prevention. Parents or guardians should make sure that a small child’s food is cut up into manageable bites that can be easily chewed and swallowed. An example might be grapes and raisins. A whole raisin is probably okay to be given to a toddler, but a grape should be sliced.

What should you do if your child is choking?

For children ages 1 to 12:

1. Assess the situation quickly.

If a child is suddenly unable to cry, cough, or speak, something is probably blocking her airway, and you'll need to help her get it out. She may make odd noises or no sound at all while opening her mouth. Her skin may turn bright red or blue.

If she's coughing or gagging, it means her airway is only partially blocked. If that's the case, encourage her to cough. Coughing is the most effective way to dislodge a blockage. If the child isn't able to cough up the object, ask someone to call 911 or the local emergency number as you begin back blows and chest thrusts. If you're alone with the child, give two minutes of care, then call 911.

On the other hand, if you suspect that the child's airway is closed because her throat has swollen shut, call 911 immediately. She may be having an allergic reaction to the food.

Call 911 immediately is your child is turning blue, unconscious or appears to be in severe distress.

2. Try to dislodge the object with back blows and abdominal thrusts.

If a child is conscious but can't cough, talk, or breathe, or is beginning to turn blue, stand or kneel slightly behind him. Provide support by placing one arm diagonally across his chest and lean him forward.
Firmly strike the child between the shoulder blades with the heel of your other hand. Each back blow should be a separate and distinct attempt to dislodge the obstruction.

Give five of these back blows.

Then do abdominal thrusts

Stand or kneel behind the child and wrap your arms around his waist.

Locate his belly button with one or two fingers. Make a fist with the other hand and place the thumb side against the middle of the child's abdomen, just above the navel and well below the lower tip of his breastbone.
Grab your fist with your other hand and give five quick, upward thrusts into the abdomen. Each abdominal thrust should be a separate and distinct attempt to dislodge the obstruction.

Repeat back blows and abdominal thrusts Continue alternating five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the object is forced out or the child starts to cough forcefully. If he's coughing, encourage him to cough up the object.

If the child becomes unconscious If a child who is choking on something becomes unconscious, you'll need to do what's called modified CPR. Here's how to do modified CPR on a child:

Place the child on his back on a firm, flat surface. Kneel beside his upper chest. Place the heel of one hand on his sternum (breastbone), at the center of his chest. Place your other hand directly on top of the first hand. Try to keep your fingers off the chest by interlacing them or holding them upward.

Perform 30 compressions by pushing the child's sternum down about 2 inches. Allow the chest to return to its normal position before starting the next compression.

Open the child's mouth and look for an object. If you see something, remove it with your fingers. Next, give him two rescue breaths. If the breaths don't go in (you don't see his chest rise), repeat the cycle of giving 30 compressions, checking for the object, and trying to give two rescue breaths until the object is removed, the child starts to breathe on his own, or help arrives.

A good rule of thumb for parents and guardians is to take a CPR class. Many hospitals and clinics also offer classes on what to do if your child is choking.

Sources: Genevra Pittman, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/29/us-choking-food-idUSBRE96S04K20130729

http://www.babycenter.com/0_first-aid-for-choking-and-cpr-an-illustrated-guide-for-child_11241.bc

 

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Bullying Leading to PTSD in Some Kids

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Most people probably associate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with men and women who have been in battle during war or experienced a traumatic life-changing event such as 9-11.

A new study says that children who are victims of bullying can also suffer from PTSD and the effects can last into adulthood. The study, published by Thormod Idsoe, Atle Dyregrov, and Ella Cosmovici Idsoe, found that about 33 % of bullying victims suffer from PTSD. In addition, 40 to 60 % of adults who have been bullying victims suffer from high levels of the signs of PTSD as well.

PTSD can have a very disruptive effect on one’s daily living. PTSD is a mental health disorder defined by nightmares, severe anxiety, flashbacks, uncontrollable thoughts about the event, and avoidance behavior.

"Pupils who are constantly plagued by thoughts about or images of painful experiences, and who use much energy to suppress them, will clearly have less capacity to concentrate on schoolwork," Idsoe said in a statement. "Nor is this usually easy to observe - they often suffer in silence."

Researchers at the University of Stavanger, in Norway, analyzed data from 963 students who were 14-15 years old. While boys were more likely to report they were being bullied, they found that girls were more likely to display PTSD symptoms. 

Of the students who reported being bullied, 27.6% of boys and 40.5 % of girls had symptoms of PTSD.  Researchers were not sure why some bullied children suffered from PTSD and some did not. "We...found that those with the worst symptoms were a small group of pupils who, in addition to being victims of bullying, frequently bullied fellow pupils themselves," Idsoe said. "One explanation, for example, could be that difficult earlier experiences make the sufferers more vulnerable, and they thereby develop symptoms and mental health problems more easily."

What are some of the symptoms of PTSD?

-       Reliving the event over and over.

-       Avoiding situations that remind you of the event.

-       Feeling numb or unable to express feelings.

-       Not interested in activities or able to enjoy them.

-       Feeling keyed-up or jittery. Always on the look out for dangerous situations.

Children can experience all the above symptoms or have other symptoms depending on their age.

-       Children age birth to 5 may get upset if their parents are not close by, have trouble sleeping, or suddenly have trouble with toilet training or going to the bathroom.

-        Children age 6 to 11 may act out the trauma through play, drawings, or stories. Some have nightmares or become more irritable or aggressive. They may also want to avoid school or have trouble with schoolwork or friends.

-        Children age 12 to 18 have symptoms more similar to adults: depression, anxiety, withdrawal, or reckless behavior like substance abuse or running away. 

Many schools are finally beginning to take bullying seriously. They have instituted anti-bullying programs and sometimes provide counseling - although allotted counseling time is often too short.

There are two types of treatments for PTSD, psychotherapy and medications. If your child is experiencing PTSD make sure that you find a therapist trained in pediatric PTSD therapy. PTSD can persist for years in some children and follow-up care is necessary to help your child heal and move forward.  

There are also many excellent online resources for how to deal with bullies and suggestions for what to do if your child is being bullied.

The study was published in the Journal of Adolescent Psychology.

Sources: http://www.medicaldaily.com/articles/13284/20121127/bullying-lead-ptsd-victims.htm#atskrsqZmiFdMBtR.99

http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/what-is-ptsd.asp

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Kids’ Type 2 Diabetes Difficult to Treat

2.30 to read

Type 2 diabetes was once considered an adult disease. Not so anymore. Kids are being diagnosed at an alarming rate, and now a new study says that these children are going to have a tougher time getting the disease under control.

Obesity and lack of physical activity are two of the most common reasons someone gets type 2 diabetes. During the past three decades, the tripling of obesity in children has gone hand in hand with an increase of type 2 diabetes in children.

What is type 2 diabetes? It begins when the body develops a resistance to insulin and cannot use insulin properly. The pancreas is no longer able to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to control blood sugar. Hyperglycemia is the medical term for high blood sugar levels. The reason it is so bad is that hyperglycemia can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems.

In a large new trial looking at ways to slow the progression of type 2 diabetes in children and teens, the addition of a second drug to the mainstay treatment metformin was only marginally more effective at controlling blood sugar than metformin alone.

Within a year, on average, half of kids on metformin and some 40 percent taking both metformin and rosiglitazone (Avandia) ended up having to resort to insulin injections to control their blood sugar, researchers reported Sunday at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies in Boston and in the New England Journal of Medicine online.

"The results of the study were discouraging," said Dr. David Allen from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in an NEJM editorial. "These data imply that most youth with type 2 diabetes will require multiple oral agents or insulin therapy within a very few years after diagnosis."

All 699 children included in the study had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes two years or less before enrollment, so the rapid advance of about half to needing insulin marks an early start to a potential lifetime of complications and side effects -- from the diabetes itself and the medications used to treat the disease.

Type 2 diabetes "progresses more rapidly" in youth, according to Dr. Phil Zeitler from the University of Colorado, Denver, who worked on the new study.

He and his colleagues were surprised at how quickly many of the youngsters needed to switch from oral medications to taking daily insulin shots, Zeitler told Reuters Health.

Also, Zeitler said, the teens in the study appeared to have complications, including infections and hospitalization, more often than adults do.

All the children in the study were overweight or obese, and ranged in age from 10 to 17 years old.

Children also may have a more difficult time taking their medications as instructed and are not usually in control of what is given to them to eat. Fast food dining has become a staple for many American families. School lunches are not much better in some regions, and kids are simply not as active as in past generations. Zeitler noted "the toxicity of your lifestyle must be pretty severe," for young children and teens to get type 2 diabetes before adulthood.

That's why all of the kids in the study got at least "basic lifestyle counseling," he emphasized -- for example, advice to stop drinking sugared sodas, eat less fast food, watch their diet in other healthy ways, take stairs instead of elevators and generally get more exercise.

Study enrollment began in July 2004 and follow-up continued through February 2011. All the kids in the study were taking metformin, a well-established diabetes drug, and a third were assigned to take the newer drug Avandia as well.

Another third of the kids were assigned a very intensive "lifestyle intervention," that involved more assignments for kids to complete, more interaction with counselors, and close involvement of at least one parent, in addition to taking metformin.

The kids' treatments were deemed failures if blood sugar and other signs pointed to their diabetes not being under control for a period of six months or more.

In the end, 52 percent of kids on metformin alone "failed" treatment, along with 39 percent of kids on metformin and Avandia and 47 percent of kids on metformin and lifestyle changes.

The median time it took for blood sugar control to be lost was just under a year.

The added benefit of Avandia was limited to girls, for reasons that are unclear, the researchers reported.

Also for unknown reasons, they noted, metformin alone was less effective for non-Hispanic black participants than other kids.

Overall, 19 percent of the participants developed serious adverse effects such as severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis.

The rate in the treatment groups was 18 percent in the metformin-only group, 15 percent in the double-drug group and 25 percent in the group that received the very intensive lifestyle intervention. The rate of specific problems such as hyperglycemia, were not significantly higher between the groups.

Fifty years ago," the editorial continues, "children did not avoid obesity by making healthy choices; they simply lived in an environment that provided fewer calories and included more physical activity for all. Until a healthier 'eat less, move more' environment is created for today's children, lifestyle interventions like that in the ...study will fail."

Type 2 diabetes can be difficult to diagnose in children because they may go without symptoms for a long time. A blood test to measure glucose metabolism is needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Mayoclinic.com gives these symptoms to be aware of. 

- Increased thirst and urination. As excess sugar builds up in your child's bloodstream, fluid is pulled from the tissues. This may leave your child thirsty. As a result, your child may drink — and urinate — more than usual.

- Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers hunger.

- Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight. Without the energy sugar supplies to your cells, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink.

- Fatigue. If your child's cells are deprived of sugar, he or she may become tired and irritable.

- Blurred vision. If your child's blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your child's eyes. This may affect your child's ability to focus clearly.

- Slow-healing sores or frequent infections. Type 2 diabetes affects your child's ability to heal and resist infections.

- Areas of darkened skin. Areas of darkened skin (acanthosis nigricans) may be a sign of insulin resistance. These dark patches often occur in the armpits or neck.

Treating type 2 diabetes is much more difficult than preventing it. Long-term diabetes can have devastating results on your health. That’s why it’s so important for families to be aware of the disease and what it takes to help prevent it.

Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-2-diabetes-in-children/DS00946/DSECTION=symptoms

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/30/us-diabetes-kids-idUSBRE83T17K20120430

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