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Your Child

Is Childhood Obesity Linked to Late Dinners?

1:30

For years, health experts have suggested that eating dinner later at night may contribute to weight gain. With so many families struggling with varied work schedules and after-school activities, researchers in London wanted to know if late dinners might be a contributing factor in childhood obesity.

Much to their surprise, they discovered no link between later supper times and children’s weight gain.

British researchers looked at data from more than 1,600 children, aged 4 to 18. They found that the risk of overweight or obesity was no higher among those who had meals between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. than among those who ate between 2 p.m. and 8 p.m.

"The findings of our study are surprising. We expected to find an association between eating later and being more likely to be overweight, but actually found that this was not the case. This may be due to the limited number of children consuming their evening meal after 8 p.m.," said study author Gerda Pot, visiting lecturer in the diabetes and nutritional sciences division at King's College London.

"'Alongside changes in dietary quality and levels of physical activity, meal timing is one of many possible factors that has been suggested as influencing the trends in weight gain seen in children in the U.K.," Pot said in a school news release.

"However, the significance of its role is under-researched. As this is one of the first studies investigating this link, it would be useful to repeat the analysis in other studies," she added.

Pol said that she and her team would continue researching other factors that may contribute to childhood obesity such as eating breakfast and different sleep habits.

Others have suggested that the most important factor in childhood obesity is not when a child eats, but what they eat and if they have gotten a sufficient amount of exercise during the day.

This study was recently published in the British Journal of Nutrition.

Story source: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/obe...

Your Child

The Benefits of Being Bilingual

2.00 to read

Do children who speak more than one language score higher on cognitive tests? Yes, according to a new Canadian study. Researchers say that bilingual students develop a deeper understanding of the structure of language, an important skill in learning to read and write.

Cognitive tests study the mental processes that allow us to perform daily functions such as paying attention, solving problems, producing and understanding language appropriately and making decisions.

Does being bilingual make a child smarter? Not necessarily, but previous studies have shown that children who learn two languages from birth are able to concentrate on the meaning of words better than monolingual children and have an advantage in developing multi-tasking skills.

In the Canadian study, researchers compared 104 six-year olds to measure their cognitive development. Some children were English speaking only. Others were Chinese-English bilinguals, French-English bilinguals, and Spanish-English bilinguals.

The experiments investigated the effects of language similarity, cultural background and educational experience on verbal and non-verbal abilities.

The children did a battery of tests that measured verbal development and one non-verbal task that measured executive control, in this case, the ability to focus attention where necessary without being distracted and then shift attention when required. The bilingual children demonstrated a superior ability to switch tasks.

"The results endorse the conclusion that bilingualism itself is responsible for the increased levels of executive control previously reported," the study's authors wrote.

To acquire language, bilingualism where the languages are similar in origin may have slight advantages, the researchers found. For example, Spanish-English bilinguals outperformed Chinese-English bilinguals and monolinguals on a test of awareness of the sound structure of spoken English.

Dr. Ellen Bialystok, one of the world's foremost experts on bilingualism among children, led the group of researchers from York University in analyzing the effects of bilingualism. Summarizing the results, Dr. Bialystok commented, "Our research has shown that reading progress amongst all bilingual children is improved" over monolingual children. In a separate statement, she said, "I think there's a lot of worry out there about other languages conflicting with a child's ability to learn to read in English, but that's absolutely not the case. Parents should not hesitate to share their native tongue with their children—it's a gift."

Because bilingualism is often tied to other factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, immigration history and language, the researchers partly took those into account by enrolling participants who all attended public schools and came from similar socio-economic backgrounds.

During the study, the children learned to read in both languages at the same time. Dr. Bialystok and her team thought that the additional time spent learning two languages might give the children an advantage. But, results showed that the advantages garnered by the children were independent of the instruction time in the other language.

Researchers noted in the online issue of the journal Child Development that "People always ask if the languages themselves matter and now we can definitively say no," study co-author, Dr. Bialystok, said in a release.

Learning a second language teaches children more about their first language. They understand the intricacies of grammar and acquire an additional awareness of how language is used to express thoughts.

The Canadian study was published in the February 8th, online issue of the journal Child DevelopmentThe study was funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Sources: http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2012/02/08/bilingual-children-brain....

http://www.early-advantage.com/articles/learningtoread.aspx

Your Child

Your Kindergartener’s First Day at School

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Whether it’s your little one’s first time, or your child is a seasoned pro, the first day of school brings both excitement and apprehension. It’s not only kids who are slightly hyperventilating… parents are too. Why? Because school is a big deal!

Let’s start with Kindergarten. It doesn’t get much cuter than to see the excitement on a kindergartner’s face on the first day of school.  Between experiencing a certain amount of separation anxiety and their first taste of independence, these little ones are spinning in multiple directions. That’s one reason mom or dad needs to keep their cool - you can cry in the car on the way home.

Some schools offer parents and children a “get to know your school” pre-school visit. If you and your child have the opportunity to visit the school in advance – take it!

The more familiar your child is with the school, the better at calming his or her anxieties on the first day. It’s also good for mom and dad to be acquainted with the teacher and the lay out of the school before your little one starts class.

On the big day, try and arrive a little early. Introduce yourself and your child to the teacher.

Help your little one get the lay of the land. Show him where the bathroom is and explain that they can go anytime they need to- but they will need to ask the teacher first. Also mention that sometimes accidents happen, and that teachers know this. Some schools will ask parents to bring an extra set of underwear and clothing to be kept in the child’s locker for such occasions.

Lunchtime is going to be an unfamiliar experience for these first-timers. You can ease their fears by taking them to the school cafeteria and letting them know that their teacher will tell them when it’s time for lunch. Explain how some children will bring their lunch from home, and some will get their lunch from the cafeteria line. Let them know that they will get to sit with the other children in their class.

Another tip to help your child understand how lunchtime will work is by taking her to a cafeteria-style restaurant before the school year begins. Explain how once they start school, lunchtime will be kind of like eating at a cafeteria. It can also be a good time to talk about healthy food choices.

If you’re going to pack a lunch for your child, begin a couple of weeks before school starts and practice the routine. You can get their input on what kinds of foods they might like and experiment with some healthy choices to see which ones they like the best.

You can also explain that there may be a naptime during the day. They don’t have to actually go to sleep, but they may get a chance to lie down on a cot and rest.

Let your child know that either you or another caregiver will pick them up from school at a certain time. If your child rides the bus, explain the process and how the adults will make sure they are kept safe.

Also, have a backup plan in case someone is going to be late or cannot pick your child up. Give the school a list of people you will allow to pick up your child when you can’t make it.

When it’s time to say goodbye, smile, wave and encourage your child to have a great day. The more relaxed you are, the less threatened your child will feel. Some children get very clingy and start crying – it’s a natural first-day-at-school- reaction to unfamiliar surroundings and circumstances. This may go on for a week or so. Teachers are pros at helping parents say good-bye. Enlist their help. Also know that some kids head off to class without even looking back. It's not a reflection on you- it's just that some personalities are always excited about a new adventure. 

As the school year progresses there will be lots of conversations about school and all the changes it brings. Remember to stay positive and give easy to understand information that correlates to your child’s age.

Stay informed on how your child is doing at school. You may want to set up a meeting with his or her teacher on a regular basis.

Once you’ve said good-bye and you’re out of the school building -go ahead and fall apart. It’s natural for parents to have some of the same emotions that their child is having. Your little one is growing up and has just passed an important milestone in life. You have too.

Source: Ruth A. Peters, Ph.D.

http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/14244318/ns/today-back_to_school/t/tips-calm-your-childs-first-day-jitters/#.TlPNHHO1lvE

Your Child

Time for Back-To-School Routines

1:30

It’s almost THAT time.

Many school districts will begin filling up the classrooms with new and returning students on or about the fourth week of this month.

There’s plenty to do in preparation, including immunizations, loading up on school supplies, new clothes and getting back to regular bedtime hours.

Four weeks may seem like plenty of time to get all these things done, but as you know, deadlines have a way of slipping up on us.

One way to help the family avoid sudden school-morning-shock is to start implementing bedtime hours and routines before classes begin.

Experts agree that two weeks before school begins is a good time to start easing back into the new hours.  Find out what time your child needs to be at school and work backwards to come up with a bedtime that will give them plenty of sleep.  If your child has been staying up later during the summer, you might want to adjust their bedtime by 15 minutes, then a half hour until you get to the bedtime they will use during the school year.

The Sleep Foundation recommends that kids between 6-13 years old get 9 to 11 hours of sleep at night. Teenagers can do well with a little less sleep; between 8 to 10 hours. Preschoolers need the most sleep with about 10 to 13 hours.

Mealtimes are also important. With longer daylight hours during the summer, meals often get pushed back to accompany evening activities. Shifting family mealtimes to an earlier hour can help train everyone’s biological clock to start expecting school schedules instead of the lazy-hazy days of summer.

As parents, you can expect some resistance. It happens every year as a new school year begins. Stick with the changes and your child will adapt. Kids aren’t the only ones that find it difficult to let go of summer; know that you also may have a difficult time adjusting to earlier mealtimes and setting new routines. Patience is going to be the key word for everyone as summer break transitions into school semesters.

Experts often note that routines help everyone function better together. While kids may not like them, they do need them. Kids are more likely to feel safer and know what is expected of them when there are guidelines.

One thing you can count on is that your kids will be watching you to see how you handle change. Be a good role model.

One simple way to help get everything done before school starts is to make a list of what needs to be done and create a calendar for achieving those goals. Check with your school and find out which immunizations and school supplies are needed, clothing or uniform regulations and pre-registration dates. Most schools will have all the information you need online.

There’s still time to enjoy the summer break and slip in a family vacation – August is a popular month for getaways. But, right now is a good time to create a plan for the remainder of August, and to prepare for that first school bell ring!

Your Child

Should More Kids Have Their Tonsils Removed?

2:00

Two new medical reviews suggest that more kids could benefit from having their tonsils removed if tonsillectomy guidelines were less stringent.

Currently, surgery qualifications require that a child must have many recurring throat infections within a short span of time or severe sleep disturbances, said Dr. Sivakumar Chinnadurai, a co-author of the reviews.

An evaluation of current medical evidence suggests more kids would receive significant short-term improvement in their daily life if the guidelines were relaxed, said Chinnadurai, a pediatric otolaryngologist with Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville.

Chinnadural and his team found that children, who underwent a tonsillectomy even when they did not meet the guidelines, experienced nearly half as many sore throats. They also missed fewer days of school and were less likely to need extra medical care.

The benefits seemed to apply only to the first couple of years following surgery. By the third year, there was no clear benefit in terms of the number of sore throats, said Chinnadural. The benefits after the first couple of years following surgery, however, were impressive.

"The decision about whether those children should have tonsillectomy for that temporary benefit is really tied to what those children need or what they're suffering with," Chinnadurai said. Kids who miss a lot of school or need frequent trips to the doctor due to sore throats could benefit from the surgery, he said.

There's an even clearer benefit for kids whose sleep is disturbed due to inflamed tonsils, Chinnadurai said.

"In a child with a diagnosis of sleep apnea, we can see a benefit in sleep-related quality of life," he said. The kids get better sleep, and thus exhibit better everyday behavior and pay more attention in school.

Better sleep in children with sleep apnea can improve many aspects of their daily

lives.

Guidelines say a tonsillectomy to treat throat infections is justified if a child had seven or more sore throats during the previous year; five or more sore throats two years running, or three or more sore throats for three years in a row, according to the background notes.

The researchers decided to review whether the throat infection guidelines are too stringent, ruling out patients who potentially could benefit but don't meet the high threshold of recurring infections, Chinnadurai said.

There aren't strong guidelines regarding the use of tonsillectomy to treat sleep disorders, so the doctors reviewed the evidence to see whether the surgery outperformed so-called watchful waiting -- monitoring the situation.

The study results showed "there may be new evidence that supports expanding the criteria and opening up the procedure to more individuals," said Dr. Alyssa Hackett, an otolaryngologist with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.

"In the right child with the right indications, these are really wonderful procedures that can be life-changing for both the child and the family," said Hackett, who wasn't involved with the new research.

Although the findings were positive, Chinnadural and Hackett both warned against automatically choosing a tonsillectomy when a child has a sore throat.

"Though a tonsillectomy is low-risk, it is not risk-free, and those risks need to be weighed against the benefits for each individual child," Chinnadurai said.

"We're talking about a child who has significant sleep-related issues," Hackett said. "We don't want people to say my child snores, they need to have their tonsils out. That's not what this study says at all."

Parents should discuss the risks and benefits of a tonsillectomy with their pediatrician if they are concerned about the amount of sore throats their child has, or if sleep apnea is diagnosed.

The two reports were published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Story source: Dennis Thompson, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/tonsillitis-news-669/should-more-kids-have-their-tonsils-out-718738.html

Your Child

Concussions May Last Longer in Girls

2.00 to read

New research suggests that girls who suffer a concussion may have more severe symptoms that last longer compared to boys.

No one seems to know why there is a difference, but other studies have come to the same conclusion.

"There have been several studies suggesting there are differences between boys and girls as far as [concussion] symptom reporting and the duration of symptoms," said Dr. Shayne Fehr, a pediatric sports medicine specialist at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.

In his new study, Fehr also found those differences. He tracked 549 patients, including 235 girls, who sought treatment at a pediatric concussion clinic.

Compared to the boys, the girls reported more severe symptoms and took nearly 22 more days to recover, said Fehr, also an assistant professor of pediatric orthopedics at the Medical College of Wisconsin.

In the new study, Fehr tracked patients from 10 to 18 years old. All were treated between early 2010 and mid-2012. Each patient reported on their symptoms, how severe they were and how long it took from the time of the injury until they were symptom-free.

Girls reported more severe symptoms and took an average of 56 days to be symptom-free. In comparison, the boys took 34 days. Overall, the time to recovery was 44 days when boys and girls were pooled.

The length of time it took for patients to fully recover from concussion is quite a bit longer than people usually think.

"Commonly you hear that seven to 10 days [for recovery] is average," Fehr said.

The patient’s who were part of this study went to concussion clinics, so their injuries may have been more acute.

Fehr did not find age to be linked with severity of symptoms. Most of the injuries -- 76 percent -- were sports-related, with football accounting for 22 percent of the concussions.

The top five reported symptoms were headache, trouble concentrating, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound and dizziness. Boys and girls, in general, reported the same types of symptoms, Fehr said, but the girls reported more severity and for a longer time period.

Fehr will present the findings at the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine this week. Studies presented at medical meetings are typically viewed as preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Whether it’s a boy or a girl that suffers a concussion, it's important to be seen by a doctor and not return to play prematurely, which can be dangerous or even fatal, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Anyone with a history of concussion is also at higher risk for another injury.

Source: Kathleen Doheny, http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20140410/girls-suffer-worse-concussions-study-suggests

Your Child

Playing With Food May Help Picky Eaters

2:00

If your child is a picky eater, encouraging them to play with their food may help them overcome the reluctance to try new foods according to a new study.

Researchers in the United Kingdom asked a group of 70 children – ages 2 to 5 – to play with mushy, slimy food while their parents observed, watching to see if kids would happily use their hands to search for a toy soldier buried at the bottom of a bowl of mashed potatoes or jelly. Children who wouldn't use their hands were offered a spoon.

Parents and researchers each rated how happy the kids were to get their hands dirty on a scale of one to five, with a higher number indicating more enjoyment. Children could get a total score as high as 20, a tally of the scores from researchers and parents for play with both the mashed potatoes and the jelly.

Researchers also gave parents a questionnaire to assess children's so-called tactile sensitivity, quizzing them about things like whether kids disliked going barefoot in the sand and grass or avoided getting messy.

The study found that kids who liked playing with their food were less likely to have food neophobia (the fear of trying something new) or tactile sensitivity.

"Although this is just an association, the implication is that getting children to play with messy substances may help their food acceptance," lead study author Helen Coulthard, a psychology researcher at De Montfort University in Leicester, U.K., told Reuters Health by email.

Previous research has linked food neophobia to limited fruit and vegetable consumption. Courtland and her team wanted to see if they could establish a link between touching food and tasting unfamiliar foods.

Courtland suggested that parents of picky eaters begin introducing new foods to their child by creating “food art.” Food art is making pictures or images with different foods on a plate.  The first step is letting your child make a picture or design by arranging various colored foods on the plate.  Don’t pressure them to taste their creation, but wait till they are ready to give it a try. Make it a game and eventually begin encouraging them to taste what they have created. Start small and expand to larger food groups and pictures.

Offering as much variety as possible from a young age also helps children experience lots of textures and flavors, which may minimize their fear of unfamiliar foods.

You’re probably going to have to join in on the taste experimentation to show how good these food pictures taste! You might also take a picture of your child with their creation on your phone and then show it to them – to make it a little more fun.

It’s fairly normal for kids to go through a period of refusing to try new foods, though most kids will grow out of this phase by the time they start school. However, there are some children that carry new food aversion on into adulthood. It isn't necessarily harmful as long as the children maintain a healthy weight for their height, pediatricians say.

But over time, neophobia can make it very difficult to enjoy social engagements. Parents that have a hard time trying or enjoying new foods themselves too often pass that trait onto their own children.  Most of the time it’s just a phase that kids go through and finding creative ways to help them work through it eliminates the problem.

Source: Lisa Rapaport, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/05/19/us-food-fears-children-idUSKBN0O41MD20150519

 

 

 

Your Child

Vaccines May Reduce the Risk of Strokes in Children

2:00

While strokes are not common in children, the risk of a child having a stroke increases when he or she has a cold or the flu. According to a new study, that child’s risk of having a stroke is reduced when he or she is fully vaccinated.

Based on 700 children across nine countries, researchers linked having had a recent illness like bronchitis, ear infection or "strep throat" to a six-fold rise in stroke risk. Having few or none of the routine childhood vaccinations was tied to a seven-fold rise in risk.

“We’re always trying to raise awareness that childhood stroke happens at all,” said lead author Dr. Heather J. Fullerton of UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital San Francisco.

Stroke is more common in children who have other health risk factors as well, Fullerton told Reuters Health. Parents of children who have a chronic disease often worry if it is safe for their child to be vaccinated. The results from this study suggest that it is even more important for these families to make sure their child is current on all their vaccines.

Parents should also know infection prevention measures like hand washing and vaccines can help prevent stroke as well, Fullerton said.

From birth to age 19 years, the rate of strokes among youth in the U.S. is about five per 100,000 children. Up to 40 percent of kids who have a stroke will die from it, according to the American Stroke Association.

Fullerton and her coauthors used medical records and parental interviews for 355 children under age 18 who experienced a stroke and compared them to records and parental interviews for 354 children without stroke.

Half of the children with stroke were age seven or older.

In the stroke group, 18 percent of the children had contracted some kind of infection in the week before the stroke occurred, while three percent of children in the comparison group had an infection in the week before the study interview.

Stroke risk was only increased for a one-week period during infection.

 Infections a month earlier were not tied to stroke risk, according to the results in Neurology.

Infections, not cold medicines, were responsible for the strokes according to the analysis in this study.

“When you have an infection, the body mounts immune response,” which manifests as fever, aches and blood that clots more easily, Fullerton said.

In stroke, a blood clot blocks blood flow to the brain.

“One can speculate that changes in the body as a result of infection may tip the balance in a child already at higher risk for stroke,” said Dr. Jose Biller, chair of neurology at the Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, who coauthored an editorial in the same issue of the journal.

“Parents should not be alarmed if their child has a cold that this will lead to stroke,” Biller told Reuters Health.

But it is important that parents be encouraged to continue with infection prevention procedures including regular pediatric vaccines, Biller said.

“Most physicians will agree that vaccines are among the safest medical products, they are rigorously tested and monitored,” he said. “They prevent thousands of illnesses and deaths in the U.S. each year.”

Infants with stroke generally present with seizures, while older infants and school age kids with stroke will have similar symptoms to an adult, including weakness on one side of the body, Fullerton said.

Kidshealth.org list these symptoms of stroke in a child.

Symptoms of stroke in an infant are:

·      Seizures in one area of the body, such as an arm or a leg.

·      Problems eating.

·      Trouble breathing or pauses in breathing (apnea).

·      Early preference for use of one hand over the other.

·      Developmental delays, such as rolling over and crawling later than usual.

Symptoms of stroke in kids and teens are:

·      Seizures.

·      Headaches, possibly with vomiting.

·      Sudden paralysis or weakness on one side of the body.

·      Language or speech delays or changes, such as slurring.

·      Trouble swallowing.

·      Vision problems, such as blurred or double vision.

·      Tendency to not use one of the arms or hands.

·      Tightness or restricted movement in the arms and legs.

·      Difficulty with schoolwork.

·      Memory loss.

·      Sudden mood or behavioral changes.

If your child experiences any of these symptoms, see a doctor right away, or call 911. Treatment for stroke can be given to reduce the severity, but needs to be administered as soon as possible.

Sources: Kathryn Doyle, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/30/us-health-stroke-child-infections-idUSKCN0RU2O320150930

http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/strokes.html#

 

 

Your Child

Antibiotic Resistance Rising in Kids with Urinary Tract Infections

2:00

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) affect about 3 percent of children in the United States each year and account for more than 1 million visits to a pediatrician.

The most common cause of a UTI is the bacterium E.coli, which normally lives in the large intestine and are present in a child’s stool. The bacterium enters the urethra and travels up the urinary tract causing an infection. Typical ways for an infection to occur is when a child’s bottom isn’t properly wiped or the bladder doesn’t completely empty.

Problems with the structure or function of the urinary tract commonly contribute to UTIs in infants and young children.

UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics but a new scientific review warns that many kids are failing to respond to antibiotic treatment.

The reason, according to the researchers, is drug resistance following years of over-prescribing and misusing antibiotics.

"Antimicrobial resistance is an internationally recognized threat to health," noted study author Ashley Bryce, a doctoral fellow at the Center for Academic Primary Care at the University of Bristol in the U.K.

The threat is of particular concern among the younger patients, the authors said, especially because UTIs are the most common form of pediatric bacterial infections.

Young children are more vulnerable to complications including kidney scarring and kidney failure, so they require prompt, appropriate treatment, added Bryce and co-author Ceire Costelloe. Costelloe is a fellow in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London, also in the U.K.

"Bacterial infections resistant to antibiotics can limit the availability of effective treatment options," ultimately doubling a patient's risk of death, they noted.

The study team reviewed 58 prior investigations conducted in 26 countries that collectively looked at more than 77,000 E. coli samples.

Researchers found that in wealthier countries, such as the U.S., 53 percent of pediatric UTI cases were found to be resistant to amoxicillin, one of the most commonly prescribed primary care antibiotics. Other antibiotics such as trimethoprim and co-amoxiclav (Augmentin) were also found to be non-effective with a quarter of young patients resistant and 8 percent resistant respectively.

In poorer developing countries, resistance was even higher at 80 percent, 60 percent respectively and more than a quarter of the patients were resistant to ciprofloxacin (Cipro), and 17 percent to nitrofurantoin (Macrobid)).

The study team said they couldn’t give a definitive reason about cause and effect but said the problem in wealthier countries probably relates to primary care doctors' routine and excessive prescription of antibiotics to children.

In poorer nations, "one possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics over the counter," they said, making the medications too easy to access and abuse.

"If left unaddressed, antibiotic resistance could re-create a world in which invasive surgeries are impossible and people routinely die from simple bacterial infections," they added.

In an accompanying editorial, Grant Russell, head of the School of Primary Health Care at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, said the only surprise was the extent of the resistance and how many first-line antibiotics were likely to be ineffective.

If current trends persist, he warned, it could lead to a serious situation in which relatively cheap and easy-to-administer oral antibiotics will no longer be of practical benefit to young UTI patients. The result would be a greater reliance on much more costly intravenous medications.

The problem of antibiotic resistance for bacterial infections has been on the minds of scientist for some time now.  Cases are increasing at an unprecedented rate causing alarm and a call for more public education and due diligence on the part of physicians that prescribes antibiotics.

Story source: Alan Mozes, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20160316/antibiotic-resistance-common-in-kids-urinary-tract-infections

 

 

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