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Your Child

Family Dog Responsible for Most Bite Injuries

2:00

Is your child more likely to be bitten by the family dog or someone else’s dog? Many parents might assume that most dog attacks occur from either strays or another’s dog because they feel like know their own pet’s behavior.

A new study points out that even man’s best friend can turn on a child or adult under the right circumstances.

The recently published study, in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery, demonstrated that more than 50 percent of the dog-bite injuries treated at Phoenix Children's Hospital came from dogs belonging to an immediate family member.

The study noted that many times, because a pet is almost considered a family member, parents of young children are too relaxed about the interactions between their children and the family dog, presenting a false sense of safety.

 "More than 60 percent of the injuries we studied required an operation," said lead author Dr. Erin Garvey, a surgical resident at Mayo Clinic "While the majority of patients were able to go home the next day, the psychological effects of being bitten by a dog also need to be taken into account."

The retrospective study looked at a 74-month period between 2007 and 2013 in which there were 670 dog-bite injuries treated at Phoenix Children's Hospital. Of those, 282 were severe enough to require evaluation by the trauma team or transportation by ambulance. Characteristics of the most common injuries included:

·      Both genders were affected (55 percent male)

·      The most common patient age was 5 years, but spanned from 2 months to 17 years

·      28 dog breeds were identified; the most common dog was pit bull

·      More than 50 percent of the dogs belonged to the patient's immediate family

·      The most common injuries were lacerations (often to the face), but there were also a number of fractures and critical injuries such as severe neck and genital trauma

 “The next step is to find out what type of education is needed and for whom - the parents, owners of the dogs and even the kids themselves," explains Dr. Garvey.

The Injury Prevention Center at Phoenix Children's Hospital recommends that families with a dog in the house follow the safety tips below:

·      Never leave infants or young children alone with a dog, including the family dog.

·      Make sure all dogs in the home are neutered or spayed.

·      Take time to train and socialize your dogs.

·      Keep dogs mentally stimulated by walking and exercising them.

·      Teach children appropriate ways to interact with animals.

A good rule of thumb is to learn how to read your dog’s body language. There are signs a dog will give when they are uncomfortable or are feeling threatened:

·      Tensed body

·      Stiff tail

·      Pulled back head and/or ears

·      Furrowed brow

·      Eyes rolled so the whites are visible

·      Yawning

·      Flicking tongue

·      Intense stare

·      Backing away

Many of the dog’s body signals listed above are the opposite of how humans display fear or irritation, and some are natural body occurrences that have nothing to do with how we react to being threatened – such as yawning, For canines, however, all of the above means -  back-off.

One more important note, when putting space between yourself and a dog that might bite, never turn your back on him and run away. A dog's natural instinct will be to chase you.

Sources: Jim McVeigh. http://www.tri-cityherald.com/2015/05/27/3579702_dog-bite-study-shows-familiarity.html?rh=1

http://www.humanesociety.org/animals/dogs/tips/avoid_dog_bites.html

 

 

Your Child

Obesity Related Heart Disease Found in Children as Young as 8

2:00

All you have to do is look around, wherever children are gathered, to see that there are far too many kids that are overweight in this country.  And sadly, some of these children may already be developing heart disease according to a new study.

The study reports that obese children as young as 8 years of age, are beginning to show signs of heart abnormalities.

"It is both surprising and alarming to us that even the youngest obese children in our study who were 8 years old had evidence of heart disease," said study lead author Linyuan Jing, a postdoctoral fellow with Geisinger Health System in Danville, Pa.

"Ultimately, we hope that the effects we see in the hearts of these children are reversible," Jing added. "However, it is possible that there could be permanent damage."

Researchers conducted MRI scans of 40 children between 8 and 16 years old. Half of the participants were obese; the other half was of normal weight for their age and height.

They found that the obese children had an average of 27 percent more muscle mass in the left ventricle region their heart, and 12 percent thicker heart muscle overall. Both are considered indicators of heart disease, Jing said.

Among 40 percent of the obese children, scans showed thickened heart muscle had already translated into a reduced ability to pump blood. The children with this reduced heart capacity were considered to be at “high risk” for adult cardiac strain and heart disease.

"This should be further motivation for parents to help children lead a healthy lifestyle," Jing said.

Dr. Gregg Fonarow, a professor of cardiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, called the findings "alarming."

Some of the obese children in the study were struggling with health complications often associated with excess weight, including asthma, high blood pressure and depression, the researchers said. But none displayed customary warning signs of heart disease such as fatigue, dizziness or shortness of breath, Jing said.

The study did not include kids with diabetes or those that were too large to fit inside the MRI scanning machine. Jing noted that the study might actually underestimate how many children are suffering from heart related problems associated with obesity.

Jing said it’s up to parents to help their children maintain a healthy weight. They should buy healthy foods instead of cheap fast food and fruit juice, "which is high in sugar but low in fiber," she said.

She also recommended that parents limit TV, computer and video game time and encourage more physical outdoor activities.

Childhood obesity isn’t just an American problem; it’s a global problem as well.  The World Heart Federation says that one in 10 school-aged children worldwide are estimated to be overweight. However, in the USA, the number of overweight children has doubled and the number of overweight adolescents has tripled since 1980.

The researchers believe that schools can play a role in helping families understand the health problems associated with obesity.

“…Schools and communities need to do a better job at educating both the parents and children about the health risks of overweight and obesity," said Jing.

Fonarow agreed adding, "Substantially increased efforts are needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity."

The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Heart Association in Orlando, Fla.

Data and conclusions presented at meetings are usually considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

Source: Alan Mozes, http://consumer.healthday.com/cardiovascular-health-information-20/misc-stroke-related-heart-news-360/obese-kids-as-young-as-8-show-heart-disease-signs-705099.html

 

 

 

Your Child

Frito-Lay Recalls Pretzels Due to Peanut Residue

2:00

Many children, who are allergic to peanuts and other nuts, consume pretzels as a snack.

Frito-Lay announced they are voluntarily recalling certain Rold Gold Tiny Twists, Rold Gold Thins, Rold Gold Sticks and Rold Gold Honey Wheat Braided due to a potential undeclared peanut allergen.

This recall is the direct result of a recent recall by a Frito-Lay supplier of certain lots of flour for undeclared peanut residue. The Rold Gold products subject to the recall may have been produced using the recalled flour and, as a result, these Rold Gold products may contain low levels of undeclared peanut residue. More information about the flour recall can be found on the FDA’s website at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/SafetyAlertsAdvisories/ucm504002.htm.

The affected Rold Gold packages are sold in retail stores and via foodservice and vending customers throughout the United States, and have “guaranteed fresh” dates ranging from June 28, 2016 - August 23, 2016 on the front of the package. Directly underneath the “guaranteed fresh” date is a 9-digit manufacturing code that includes the numbers “32” in the second and third position (example: x32xxxxxx).

The following products with the above-described “guaranteed fresh” dates and manufacturing codes are impacted:

•       Rold Gold Tiny Twists - 1 oz. , 2 oz., 16 oz. and 20½ oz.

•       Rold Gold Thins - 4 oz. and 16 oz.

•       Rold Gold Sticks - 16 oz.

•       Rold Gold Honey Wheat Braided - 10 oz.

It is important to note that products that do not include 32 in the second and third positions of the manufacturing code are not impacted.

The Rold Gold Tiny Twists are also included in select multipack offerings. The impacted multipacks have “use by” dates on the front of the package. Directly next to or underneath the “use by” date is a 11-digit manufacturing code that will include the letter combination AM, TO, QH, QC or SW in the second and third position (example: xAMxxxxxxxx). The impacted products have different, varying “use by” dates, including:

•       20 count Baked & Popped Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from May 31 - July 26, 2016

•       20 count SunChips & Rold Gold Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       32 count Fun Times Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       30 count Baked & Popped Variety Pack -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       30 count Home Town Favorite Variety Pack -- “use by” dates ranging from May 31 - July 26, 2016

To date, Frito-Lay has received no reports of illness related to the products covered by this recall. No other Rold Gold products or flavors are impacted. Frito-Lay has informed the FDA of our actions.

Consumers with any product noted above can return the product to retailer for a full refund, or contact Frito-Lay Consumer Relations (9 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. CST, Mon.-Fri.) at 1-888-256-3090 or www.pretzelrecall.com.

Story source: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/ucm505365.htm

 

Your Child

Unhealthy TV Snack Ads Work on Preschoolers

1:30

Kids love snacks and advertisers count on that to sell products.  That’s why so many commercials on children’s TV shows promote snacks packed with sugar and salt. According to a new study, preschoolers who are exposed to these types of ads will eat more of those foods, even if they are not hungry.

The study, led by Jennifer Emond, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, involved a small study of 60 children, 2 to 5 years old. Emond’s team monitored the kids as they watched a 14-minute segment of “Sesame Street.”

The preschoolers got a filling snack before the show, so they were not hungry, and then had unlimited access to snacks during it.

Some of the children watched the "Sesame Street" segment without food commercials, while others watched the show with commercials for a popular salty snack. The ads depicted kids happily playing and eating the snack.

While viewing the segment, the children were provided with two snacks: corn snacks and graham snacks. The same corn snacks provided were featured in the food advertisements shown to some of the children.

The researchers found that the preschoolers who watched the segment embedded with food ads consumed more calories in snacks on average than those who watched the department store ads.

Additionally, the children who watched the food ads ended up eating more of the advertised corn snack than the graham snack -- even if they had never eaten the corn snack before and, therefore, were not familiar with it.

"That was surprising because it demonstrated the powerful effect food advertising can have on priming potentially unhealthy eating behaviors at a young age," Emond said.

The results of this small study replicate the findings of other studies with older children.

About 40% of all food and beverage ads that children and teens see on television are for unhealthy snacks, according to a 2015 report by the University of Connecticut's Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity (PDF).

"Parents should not shrug off food marketing. These ads really do influence children," said Marlene Schwartz, director for the center and a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Connecticut, who was not involved in the new study.

"If the ads were for healthy foods, that would be an asset to parents, but when the ads are for unhealthy foods, they make parents' job harder," she said.

Story sources: Jacqueline Howard, http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/21/health/food-ads-kids-preschool/

https://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/obesity-health-news-505/tv-snack-food-ads-get-preschoolers-snacking-more-study-shows-716956.html

Your Child

Are Soft Contact Lenses Safe for Teens and Children?

1:45

While many kids and teens that have to wear eyeglasses would like to switch to soft contact lenses, their parents may be wondering if they are safe for these age groups. The short answer is yes, according to a new review.

"In the past decade, there has been increasing interest in fitting children with contact lenses," said review author Mark Bullimore, an adjunct professor at the University of Houston College of Optometry.

He reviewed nine studies that included 7- to 19-year-olds who use soft contact lenses, to gauge the risk of corneal inflammation and infection. Called "corneal infiltrative events," these are usually mild, but about 5 percent involve a serious infection called microbial keratitis.

The studies revealed that children wearing contact lenses, typically, experience reactions similar to adults. In fact, one large study showed that events in younger children (8 to 12) were much lower than in teenagers from 13 to 17 years of age.

Also, researchers found that microbial keratitis was uncommon. One study actually found no cases in younger kids, and the teen rates of infection were the same as adults.

The difference may be attributed to the daily living habits of the age groups.  It's suspected that younger kids aren't showering or napping while wearing their contact lenses as often as teens do. Those behaviors increase the risk of corneal infiltrative events, Bullimore said.

Bullimore believes the findings should reassure parents about the safety of soft contacts for children and teens. They may improve young people's self-esteem and quality of life, and have been shown to prevent or slow progression of nearsightedness in children, he said.

"The overall picture is that the incidence of corneal infiltrative events in children is no higher than in adults, and in the youngest age range ... it may be markedly lower," Bullimore wrote in the review.

Parents can help kids avoid eye infections by supervising their youngster’s cleaning and wearing habits when using contact lenses, Bullimore added.

Soft contacts are now available with no age restrictions. Parents should talk with their child’s optician or optometrist for more information on transitioning from glasses to soft contacts.

The study was published in the journal Optometry and Vision Science.

Story source: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/eye-care-information-13/eye-and-vision-problem-news-295/soft-contact-lenses-safe-for-kids-and-teens-review-finds-723398.html

Your Child

Helping Your Child Learn From Failure

2.30 to read

Do you immediately run to the rescue and try to save your child from failing? Many parents, guardians, grandparents, aunts and uncles, friends, neighbors, and school systems seem to believe that failure is simply not an option for a child these days. 

Perhaps because the idea of failure is often associated with pain and loss, parents naturally want to spare their child any suffering. It’s certainly a normal response to want to help your boy or girl achieve whatever they set out to do, but without disappointment your child’s chances of succeeding in the future diminish. Without failure, success rarely happens. Learning how to cope with disappointment, anger, frustration and sadness are a part of growing into a responsible person – whether you’re a child or an adult.

More important than not passing a test, not making the team, not being chosen for a part in the school play, not spelling a word correctly in a spelling bee, is learning how to cope with disappointment and embarrassment.

How your child responds to feelings of anger, frustration, embarrassment, sadness or low self-esteem will mostly depend on their age and maturity. Children can be taught positive coping skills that help them move past an uncomfortable event. Children also see how parents and others around them handle stress and failure. If we get angry, bossy, inconsolable, and don’t accept responsibility for our own actions, we teach our children to do the same.

Failure at one thing has often opened the door to accomplishments in other areas. Your child may not be accomplished enough to make a sports team, but he or she can run circles around others in math or science. Even though you’ve told your child they can sing like an angel since they were old enough to complete a sentence, others may find that he or she can’t really carry a tune. Your child most likely will not get the lead in the next school musical. And that’s okay. She may discover that her real talent is creating costumes out of raw material, or he may find out that nobody can build a stage set out of cardboard better than he can. Encouragement and praise for what your child can achieve goes a long way in helping them understand and deal with what they can’t achieve.

So, what if my child hasn’t discovered what they are innately good at doing? Life is not a race to excellence; it’s a process. Given enough time and experience, your child will discover his or her own hidden talent. It may take a few failures along the way to make that discovery.

Failure at first try, or second try, or many tries, can often motivate someone to practice harder, study longer, attempt a different approach or in other words – apply themselves more. Children can learn more about problem solving when they are allowed to experience different approaches.  Help your child evaluate what went wrong and how they can prevent it from occurring again by offering them choices. That’s a lot different than protecting them from experiencing the failure in the first place.

Through trial and error, then trying again and succeeding - our kids learn about patience, perseverance and satisfaction in their accomplishments.

Failure is not the opposite of success. “Failure is an event, not a person.” (Zig Ziglar) 

You’ve watched your child learn how to master sitting up, crawling, walking and eating with silverware. All along the way, a child has to make mistakes before they can get it right. Every time there was a fall or setback- most likely there was love and encouragement to try again. Parents that catch their child every time their little one loses his or her balance prevent them from ever finding their balance.

Success isn’t always about “winning.” It’s often about finding another path.

It may be painful to watch your daughter or son have to deal with an unpleasant or painful experience – but it’s something we all have to go through.  Bad relationships can help us value good relationships. Not being chosen can help us strike out on our own and discover the joy of self-reliance.

Childcare.about.com offers these tips for helping your child turn their failure into a lesson for success.

Help your child identify the emotions she feels and express those in an acceptable way. When your child is not successful, whether in the classroom or on the ball field, parents (or any adult caregiver for that matter) should be available to help them work through the emotions.

  • Give him an opportunity to talk about why he thinks things didn't go the way he wanted or expected them to go. Even youngsters can express their feelings, and one of the best things a parent can do is listen. Your child might even provide some insight into what happened that you were not aware of.
  • Provide age-appropriate activities that match your child's interests and skills. Too often, parents lose their way in expecting too much of a child at too young of an age. It really is okay if your child can't do a toe-touch in first grade or is unable to hit the ball off a tee at age 4.
  • Let your child know that winning isn't the most important thing. Give as much praise for his effort and his attitude as you do for a winning outcome.
  • Talk to your child about his strengths--the things that you observe as his positive traits. Conversations such as this can help build self-esteem in even a very young child.
  • Keep your expectations for your child reasonable and realistic. Don't expect your eight year old to master a piano piece by Beethoven in two days, just because her sister can.
  • Remember that your child watches how you respond to failures in your own life. It's okay to share your disappointment and important to show them how you learn from the experience.
  • Let your child know that you love him, win or lose. A big bear hug and a word of encouragement can ease the pain felt when he fails a test or falls down when learning how to ride his bike.

Parents can help their children mature and develop a strong character by helping them face and learn from their “failures.” Learning to fail at something with grace and grit can help your child develop into a more successful person.

Source: Robin McClure,  http://childcare.about.com/od/generaladvice/a/failing.htm

Your Child

Kids Not Sleeping Well? Could Be the Electronics in the Bedroom!

1:45

If you’re concerned that your child is not getting enough sleep, here’s one way to help him or her rest better and longer. Remove the television and other small electronics from your child’s bedroom.

According to a new study, children who sleep with televisions or other small-screened devices – such as smartphones and tablets – in their bedrooms, spend less time sleeping than children without those devices in their rooms.

“While more studies are needed to confirm our results, we know that too much screen time is bad for children’s health in multiple ways,” said Jennifer Falbe, the study’s lead author from the University of California, Berkley.

Other studies have linked having a televisions in a child’s bedroom to poorer sleep, but there hasn’t been much research into the impact of smaller electronic devices in children’s bedrooms and sleep.

For the new study, Falbe and colleagues used data from 2,048 fourth- and seventh-graders enrolled in an obesity study in Massachusetts. Researchers found that kids with TVs in their rooms slept about 18 minutes less than kids without TVs in their rooms.  When they looked at the effect of sleeping next to small screens, the time spent not sleeping increased to 21 minutes. Less sleep is often tied to other issues including obesity and academic performance.

The children that slept next to small screens also reported feeling as if they didn’t get enough sleep during the night.

Not surprisingly, researchers noted that watching TV and playing video games before bedtime, including those on a computer, was also linked to less sleep.

There are a number of reasons why televisions and small-screened electronics may result in worse sleep, such as the bright light of screens before bed, sounds and alerts and more sedentary activity to name a few

“Parents can keep screen media out of the child’s bedroom, limit total screen time and set a screen time curfew,” Falbe said.

A recent study revealed that reading e-readers, instead of paper books, before bed can actually make you more alert than sleepy. The electronic light appears to shift the body’s circadian rhythms delaying the production of the hormone melatonin.

So it’s no surprise that television, computer, tablet or smartphone light could do the same thing. Watching TV or participating on smaller screen activity also stimulates the brain instead of sending the signal to relax and fall to sleep.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children under two avoid screens altogether and that parents establish a “screen-free” zone in the home. Results from this study strongly suggest that one of the screen-free zones be in your child’s bedroom.

Source: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/01/05/us-electronics-pediatrics-sleep-idUSKBN0KE1SI20150105

Your Child

Childhood Mental Health Problems Linked to Adult Troubles

2:00

 

Children who suffer from poor mental health may also have a lower chance of success later in life, according to a new study from researchers at Duke University.

The scientists found that children with mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and/or behavioral problems were six times more likely than those with no psychiatric problems to have difficulties in adulthood.

Those later struggles included addiction, early pregnancy, criminal charges, and difficulty getting and keeping jobs, education failures and housing instability, the study authors said.

Researchers analyzed data from more than 1,400 participants in 11 North Carolina counties who were followed from childhood through adulthood. Most of the study participants are now in their 30s.

While still in childhood, about 26 percent of the participants met the criteria for depression, anxiety or a behavioral disorder, 31 percent had milder forms below the full threshold of a diagnosis, and nearly 43 percent had no mental health problems.

Researchers followed up with the participants as adults.

Among those diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder in childhood, more than 59 percent had a serious challenge in adulthood and about 34 percent had numerous problems. The rates among those with milder forms of mental illness were about 42 percent and 23 percent, respectively.

"When it comes to key psychiatric problems -- depression, anxiety, behavior disorders -- there are successful interventions and prevention programs," study author William Copeland, an assistant clinical professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, said in a Duke news release.

"So, we do have the tools to address these, but they aren't implemented widely. The burden is then later seen in adulthood, when these problems become costly public health and social issues," he added.

The findings show the need to treat mental health problems early. But, only about 40 percent of children with diagnosed psychiatric disorders receive treatment, and the rate is even lower for those with milder mental health problems, according to Copeland.

"A big problem with mental health in the United States is that most children don't get treatment and those who do don't get what we would consider optimal care," he said. "So the problems go on much longer than they need to and cost much more than they should in both money and damaged lives."

Parents and family members are typically the first to notice if a child seems to have problems with emotions or behavior, but may not know when they should seek professional help for a child.  The following signs may indicate the need for professional help:

•       Decline in school performance

•       Poor grades despite strong efforts

•       Constant worry or anxiety

•       Repeated refusal to go to school or to take part in normal activities

•       Hyperactivity or fidgeting

•       Persistent nightmares

•       Persistent disobedience or aggression

•       Frequent temper tantrums

•       Depression, sadness or irritability

Getting children help when they are young can change the course of their lives. If you suspect your child may need a mental health evaluation, talk with your pediatrician or family doctor about available resources.

While the study found an association between poor mental health in childhood and problems later in life, it did not prove a cause-and-effect link. However, even children with mild or passing episodes of psychiatric problems were found to be at an increase risk for struggles later in life.

The study was published in the July 15th issue of the journal JAMA Psychiatry.

Sources: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/kids-ailments-health-news-434/mental-health-problems-in-childhood-linked-to-greater-chances-of-trouble-in-adulthood-701298.html

http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/recognizing-mental-health-problems-children

Your Child

Early Childhood Trauma Tied to Learning, Behavioral Problems

2:00

When children five years old and younger experienced a traumatic event in their lives, the fall-out from that event can show up in learning and behavioral problems by the time they enter kindergarten, according to a new study. 

Traumatic events, also known as Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), can range from physical, sexual or psychological abuse and neglect, substance abuse, mental illness, violence in the home to a family member in jail; anything that causes a great deal of stress or fear in a young child’s life.

The study, "Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes," in the February 2016 online edition of Pediatrics, includes data on more than 1,000 children in large U.S. cities whose teachers rated school performance at the end of kindergarten.

Students who'd experienced one or more previously reported ACE were significantly more likely to struggle in the classroom, displaying below-average language, literacy and math skills, as well as aggression and social problems.

The more adverse events a child experienced, according to the study, the more academic and behavior problems increased.

While it’s often said that children are resilient, and they are to a certain extent, when they are exposed to continuous traumatic situations, their body’s natural way of dealing with stress changes and the stress becomes toxic resulting in a higher risk of behavioral challenges, sickness and mental health problems.

Children who experience traumatic stressors will often look to the adults who care for them for reassurance that things will be okay and that they will be protected.

The most important adults in a young child's life are his/her caregivers and relatives. These adults can help reestablish security and stability for children who have experienced trauma by:

•       Answering children's questions in language they can understand, so that they can develop an understanding of the events and changes in their life

•       Developing family safety plans

•       Engaging in age-appropriate activities that stimulate the mind and body

•       Finding ways to have fun and relax together

•       Helping children expand their "feelings" vocabulary

•       Honoring family traditions that bring them close to the people they love, e.g., storytelling, holiday celebrations, reunions, trips

•       Looking for changes in behaviors

•       Helping children to get back on track

•       Setting and adhering to routines and schedules

•       Setting boundaries and limits with consistency and patience

•       Showing love and affection

Sometimes professional help is needed for children to learn new coping skills. In some cases family therapy is desirable. Parents or caregivers may wish to consult their pediatrician, their child's teacher, and/or their childcare provider for suggestions of professionals who specialize in early childhood mental health.

The authors of the study said they hope the findings encourage policymakers and practitioners to find ways for early childhood professionals like pediatricians and educators to work together to support at-risk children and their families. 

Sources: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/news/Pages/Early-Traumatic-Experiences-Tied-to-Learning-Behavioral-Difficulties-in-Kindergarten.aspx

http://www.nctsn.org/content/helping-young-children-who-have-been-exposed-trauma-families-and-caregivers

 

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Count your blessings this Thanksgiving!

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