Your Baby

Newborn Safety Tips

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If you’re expecting, you may have already begun decorating your baby’s room with a crib, rocking chair, mobile and changing table. While it’s tempting to fill your newborn’s crib with stuffed animals, blankets, pillows or toys - bare is the safest route to go.

The Consumer Protection and Safety Commission (CPSC) recommends removing pillows, quilts, comforters or cushions from your baby’s crib, bassinet or play yard.

Many times cribs are handed down from friends and family members. It’s a good idea to give a second hand crib a thorough inspection. Always use a crib that meets current CPSC standards. Newer standards have stringent requirements for various parts of the crib, such as mattress supports, slats, and hardware.

CPSC offers a three minute video on their website outlining safe sleep tips for infants. You can watch the video at http://www.cpsc.gov/Newsroom/Multimedia/?vid=61784.

A few of the tips included in the video are:

  • Never place your crib up against a window with blinds. A window can create a fall hazard and blind cords can cause strangulation.
  • To prevent suffocation, remove pillows and thick quilts. A baby’s face can become pressed into these items and stop the flow of air into his or her lungs. 
  • Make sure there are no gaps larger than two fingers between the sides of the crib and the mattress.
  • Make sure your crib has a firm mattress and fits tightly into the crib on all four sides.
  • Do not use cribs older than 10 years or broken or modified cribs. Infants can strangle to death if their bodies pass through gaps between loose components or broken slats while their heads remain entrapped.

Many new parents worry about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).  There can be numerous contributors to the cause of SIDS, but in 1992 doctors discovered the key reason was stomach sleeping. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) launched the “Back to Sleep” campaign to educate parents on the dangers of placing their baby on their stomach or side to sleep.  

  • Place your baby on his or her back to help prevent suffocation. Baby’s placed on their side tend to roll over onto their stomach – pressing their face into the mattress.
  • Never place your baby on top of pillows or comforters.
  • Never fall asleep with your baby in bed with you. A parent who is sleeping may unknowingly roll over on their infant and cause their baby to suffocate.
  • Overheating is a known cause of SIDS. Make sure your infant is not over-wrapped or dressed in clothing that is too heavy for the temperature in the room. Your baby may be too hot if you notice sweating, damp hair, flushed cheeks, heat rash or rapid breathing.
  • Place your baby’s crib in a cigarette smoke-free room.
  • Don’t place your baby on a chair, sofa, waterbed or an adult mattress to sleep alone.

A large number of cribs are recalled due to faulty parts. Often these cribs are imported. Make sure your crib hasn’t been recalled by checking the CPSC website. Parents and caregivers can sign up to receive emails on recalls pertaining to infants and children at cpsc.gov, keepingbabiessafe.org, or aap.org.

To keep your baby warm, dress him or her in footed pajamas. If your baby needs more warmth, use a baby “sleeping bag.” Infant sleeping bags remove the need for blankets and can help prevent baby from rolling onto his tummy during sleep. They can be used from birth for babies who don't like being wrapped. Or they can be used from the time when baby resists wrapping or becomes too old for it (usually around 4 months or as soon as he can roll onto his tummy).

Look for sleeping bags that have a fitted neck, armholes or sleeves and no hood.

In warmer months, a lightweight footed-sleeper is good or a “Onesie,” a one-piece shirt that snaps over a diaper.  

Talk to your pediatrician or family doctor if you have any questions about caring for your infant. It’s a new experience for parents and you don’t receive a baby manual when you leave the hospital. Doctors have heard any question you may have, so there are no silly or stupid questions when it comes to your baby’s safety!

Sources; http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/sleep/pages/A-Parents-Guide-to-Safe-Sleep.aspx

http://www.cpsc.gov/Safety-Education/Safety-Education-Centers/cribs/

Your Baby

Safer Baby Cribs

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New rules by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission are established to keep your baby safer while sleeping in their crib.Babies spend most of their time sleeping, and the safest place to drift off into dreamland should be their crib.

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) voted unanimously to approve new mandatory standards for full-size and non-full-size baby cribs as mandated by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA). The federal crib standards had not been updated in nearly 30 years and these new rules are expected to usher in a safer generation of cribs. Once they become effective, the mandatory crib standards will: (1) stop the manufacture and sale of dangerous, traditional drop-side cribs; (2) make mattress supports stronger; (3) make crib hardware more durable; and (4) make safety testing more rigorous. CPSC has recalled more than 11 million dangerous cribs since 2007. Detaching drop-side rails were associated with at least 32 infant suffocation and strangulation deaths since 2000. Additional deaths have occurred due to faulty or defective hardware. These new standards aim to prevent these tragedies and keep children safe in their cribs. Effective June- 2011, cribs manufactured, sold, or leased in the United States must comply with the new federal standards. Effective 24 months after the rule is published, child care facilities, such as family child care homes and infant Head Start centers, and places of public accommodation, such as hotels and motels, must have compliant cribs in their facilities. The full-size and non-full-size crib standards adopted the current ASTM International voluntary standards with additional technical modifications. The rule will be among the toughest in the world, CPSC Chairman Inez Tenebaum said. Tenenbaum has made crib safety one of the biggest priorities at the CPSC in her 18-month tenure. Her “safe sleep” initiative is broader than the crib rule, encouraging parents to place sleeping infants on their backs and warning about the risk of suffocation from soft bedding. The regulations approved today will result in cribs with tighter fittings and more durable sides and mattress supports. Tougher tests will be used to simulate wear over time. A trio of child-care industry groups -- the National Head Start Association , the National Association for Family Child Care and the Early Care and Education Consortium -- puts the price tag for replacing cribs at $600 million. “Parents and caregivers should have peace of mind that when they leave their baby in a crib that their baby will be safe,” said Rachel Weintraub, product safety director for the Consumer Federation of America. “For too long, that has not been the case.” The need for the tougher testing was evident for years before Congress acted, said Nancy Cowles, executive director of Chicago-based “Kids in Danger”, an advocacy group. Aside from the drop-side design, other kinds of hardware failures have resulted in fatalities, she said. Cribs made under the new rule will be much safer than existing models, even ones that have been repaired through recalls, Cowles said. “There’s going to be a huge difference in how sturdy these cribs are,” she said.

Your Baby

Is My Baby Teething?

How do you know when your baby is teething?A major milestone in a your-baby’s first year is the cutting of their first tooth. Babies typically get their first tooth, on the bottom, around four to seven months of age. But it is important for parents to realize that babies develop differently and it is not unheard of for your-baby to cut their first tooth closer to their first birthday.

The arrival of that first tooth can sometimes be painful. Babies typically experience pain with teething two to three days before and after a tooth erupts. That pain can be managed with an over-the-counter pain reliever like Tylenol. “I do not recommend giving a young infant a product with ibuprofen,” says pediatrician Dr. Sue Hubbard. Dr. Hubbard says one way to also manage the pain is to give your child something to chew one, like a large piece of frozen bagel, a frozen washcloth or frozen teething ring.Many parents attribute a sudden fever to teething. But Dr. Hubbard says “You don’t run high fever with teething. If your your-baby is running a high fever, pulling on ears, and is irritable, it could be a sign of a secondary infection and you should contact your pediatrician about it.”

Your Baby

Babies Shouldn’t Be Given OTC Cold Medicines

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When a baby is sick with a cold, the first reaction for many parents is to want to give their infant something to make him or her feel better. It’s a natural response; no parent likes to see their little one feeling bad. But turning to the medicine cabinet or making a trip to the pharmacy isn’t going to help your baby get better any quicker and could be dangerous says the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medicine should not be given to children younger than 2 because they could cause serious and potentially deadly side effects, the agency warned.

Children often get more colds than adults, and parents might want to give them pain relievers, decongestants and other medicines, but that would be a mistake. The FDA says the best medicine is simple rest and care.

"A cold is self-limited, and patients will get better on their own in a week or two without any need for medications. For older children, some OTC medicines can help relieve the symptoms -- but won't change the natural course of the cold or make it go away faster," Dr. Amy Taylor, a medical officer in FDA's Division of Pediatric and Maternal Health, said in the news release.

A virus is what typically brings on a cold, but people often ask their physician or pediatrician (for their children) for antibiotics to treat them. Antibiotics are only useful for treating bacterial infections.

Colds are usually accompanied by coughing which can actually be useful to the body.

"Coughs help the body clear the mucus out of the airway and protect the lungs; so you don't want to suppress all coughs," Taylor said.

"Coughs help the body clear the mucus out of the airway and protect the lungs; so you don't want to suppress all coughs," she said.

Fever helps the body fight off an infection and does not always need to be treated. But if your child is uncomfortable because of fever or other symptoms of a cold, there are alternatives to cough and cold medicine to help them feel more comfortable. Taylor says they include the following actions:

·      Using a clean cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in a small area near the child’s bed may help moisten the air and decrease the drying of the nasal passages and throat.

·      For infants with a stuffy nose, use saline or salt water drops/spray to moisten the nasal passages and loosen the mucus. Then clean the nose with a bulb syringe.

Non-drug treatments to ease coughs in children with colds include giving them plenty of fluids, especially warm drinks to soothe the throat.

While most children with colds do not need to see a doctor, Taylor said parents should call the doctor if they see any of these symptoms:

·      A fever in an infant aged 2 months or younger, or a fever of 102 Fahrenheit or higher at any age.

·       Signs of breathing problems, including nostrils widening with each breath, wheezing, fast breathing or the ribs showing with each breath.

·      Blue lips, ear pain, not eating or drinking, signs of dehydration.

·      Excessive crankiness or sleepiness, a cough that lasts for more than three weeks, or worsening condition.

·      A persistent cough may signal a more serious condition such as bronchitis or asthma.

"You have to know your child," Taylor said. "With small infants, fever is a major concern, and you need medical advice. If you are worried about your child's symptoms, at any age, call your pediatrician for advice."

The FDA voluntarily removed cough and cold products for children under two years old from the market because of on-going safety concerns discussed in 2007.  These safety concerns revealed that there were many reports of harm, and even death, to children who used these products.  These reports of harm occurred when the child received too medication such as in cases as accidental ingestion, unintentional overdose, or after a medication dosing error.  In those reports of harm that lead to a child’s death, most of those children were under two years of age.  

Since infant formulations of cough and cold products were voluntarily removed from the market years ago, parents who currently give these products to their infants (less than 2 years of age) may be using cough and cold products designed for older children and modifying the doses, for instance by giving half the recommended amount to the infant than what is recommended for an older child.  This can be especially dangerous as dosing adjustments cannot safely be made this way and could add to the existing risk of giving these products to young children.

Colds can be tough on children and adults and this is certainly the time of year when we all are more susceptible to getting one. Fluids and plenty of rest, plus sanitizing the area around the sick person and not sharing objects like silverware and drinking cups is the best treatment for colds. And of course the most important cold remedy for baby is mommy and daddy’s love and tender touch. 

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/respiratory-and-allergy-information-2/common-cold-news-142/steer-clear-of-cold-meds-for-babies-fda-advises-693878.html

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/SpecialFeatures/ucm263948.htm

Your Baby

New Guidelines for Newborn Genetic Screenings

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Certain medical conditions can be present at birth but not easily identifiable. Metabolic or inherited disorders can impede a child’s normal physical and or mental development in lots of different ways. Without even knowing that they are carriers, parents can pass on the genes that produce these types of disorders. That’s where genetic screening of newborns comes in. With a simple blood test doctors can tell if the newborn has a condition that may eventually cause the child problems. Some of these disorders, if treated early, can be managed.

The federal government has not set any national standards, but many states have mandatory newborn screening programs. Parents can opt out of genetic testing if they want. Parents should discuss genetic screening with their pediatrician or child’s doctor so they can weigh the pros and cons.

Many states screen for more than 30 disorders and the screenings are often covered in the delivery and hospital charges. If a parent wants expanded testing on their newborn, they may have to pay an extra cost but it may be worth it to their baby.

To help guide states and parents determine what criteria should be used for genetic screening, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics just offered new guidelines.

The new guidelines say that all newborns should be tested for the genetic diseases that are included in their state's newborn screening panel, but anything beyond that is up to parents and the decision must be made in the child's best interest.

The recommendations distinguish between genetic testing for childhood onset conditions versus those for adult onset conditions.

"There is an important role for counseling before and after genetic screening," added policy author Dr. Lainie Friedman Ross, a pediatrician and ethicist at the University of Chicago. "The focus should be on education of families, counseling them and helping them make decisions that focus on the child's best interest."

Testing for disease in the presence of symptoms is another area addressed by the new recommendations. "Clearly, if a child has symptoms, we need a diagnosis to help the family make clinical decisions that are in the child's best interest. This is important even when the disease has no current therapies," Friedman Ross added.

She also said that the results should be explained to the child when they reach the appropriate age.

New technology offers direct-to-consumer genetic screening tests, but the authors caution parents about using these products because of a lack of oversight and results are open to interpretation.

Some experts agree that being forewarned is being forearmed, but are not fans of the direst-to-consumer genetic tests.

"We highly discourage these even on adults, and particularly on children, because there is nobody there to provide counseling and interpretation," says Dr. Joyce Fox, a medical genetics doctor at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y. “These can also be very costly, and are likely not covered by insurance." Fox says.

Parents should educate themselves about genetic screening before the baby is born.  Most babies are born healthy and glide right through the genetic screening. But there are cases when the genetic testing panel reveals serious conditions such as PKU or Sickle Cell Anemia. 

If a baby’s screening results are negative, it means the tests did not show any signs of the conditions in the screening. On the other hand, if there are any positive results, it means there are signs of one or more of the conditions included in the screening,

A positive result does not always mean that the baby has the condition. It does mean though, that further testing is needed to make a final determination.

Early treatment for some of the conditions screened for can prevent serious future complications; so don’t delay if more tests are needed.

Pediatricians and geneticists say they approve of the new guidelines. The guidelines were published online in the journal Pediatrics.

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Sources: Denise Mann, http://consumer.healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=673692

http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/newborn_screening_tests.html#cat150

Your Baby

No More Infant Dose of Acetaminophen

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Drug manufacturers will no longer be producing OTC infant acetaminophen for safety reasons. Over the counter drug makers have announced they will stop producing acetaminophen in concentrated infant drop.  The reason? They hope this will help parents reduce the confusing surrounding just how much your child should be taking.

The Consumer Healthcare Products Association which is the chief trade group for OTC drug manufacturers said the move was intended to reduce dosing errors. "CHPA member companies are voluntarily making this conversion to one concentration to help make it easier for parents and caregivers to appropriately use single-ingredient liquid acetaminophen,” said CHPA CEO Scott Melville. Earlier this week, the FDA released a final guideline document for OTC liquid manufacturers stating all such products should be packaged with calibrated dosing devices. Several studies have revealed that children receive improper doses of OTC liquid medicine because parents use household spoons or because the dosages devices included in packaging are not easy to read. Our advice? Always read medication labels and use proper devices that accurately measure dosage.

Your Baby

Lower IQ Scores Linked to Prenatal Pollution

For the first time, researchers have linked air pollution exposure before birth with lower IQ scores in childhood, bolstering evidence that smog may harm the developing brain. The results are from a study of 249 children of New York City women who wore backpack air monitors for 48 hours during the last few months of pregnancy. They lived in mostly low-income neighborhoods in northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. They had varying levels of exposure to typical kinds of urban air pollution, mostly from car, bus and truck exhaust. The study appears in the August 2009 issue of Pediatrics.

At age five, before starting school, the children were given IQ tests. Those exposed to the most pollution before birth scored on average four to five points lower than children with less exposure. The study’s lead author, Frederica Perera, director of the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health says it is a big enough difference that it could affect children’s performance in school. However, Dr. Michael Msall, a University of Chicago pediatrician not involved in the research, said the study doesn't mean that children living in congested cities "aren't going to learn to read and write and spell." It does suggest that you don't have to live right next door to a belching factory to face pollution health risks, and that there may be more dangers from typical urban air pollution than previously thought, he said. "We are learning more and more about low-dose exposure and how things we take for granted may not be a free ride," he said. While future research is needed to confirm the new results, the findings suggest exposure to air pollution before birth could have the same harmful effects on the developing brain as exposure to lead, said Patrick Breysse, an environmental health specialist at Johns Hopkins' school of public health. And along with other environmental harms and disadvantages low-income children are exposed to, it could help explain why they often do worse academically than children from wealthier families, Breysse said. "It's a profound observation," he said. "This paper is going to open a lot of eyes." The researchers said they plan to continuing monitoring and testing the children to learn whether school performance is affected and if there are any additional long-term effects.

Your Baby

Never Leave a Child Unattended in a Car Seat, Swing or Bouncer

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Placing an infant in a car seat, swing or bouncer as a substitute for a crib can be a fatal decision. These objects work fine when used properly for their intended purpose, but when a child is left unattended – they can quickly turn deadly according to a new study.

Using these devices as directed and not as substitutes for a crib would reduce the risk of death, according to lead author Dr. Erich K. Batra of Penn State College of Medicine in Hershey, Pennsylvania.

“The overarching advice goes back to a more basic message of safe sleep,” Batra told Reuters Health. “In an infant, a safe sleep environment includes the ABCs: they sleep alone, not in bed between parents, on their backs, and in a crib or bassinet without any loose bedding.”

The study reviewed young children’s death in devices like car seats, swings and bouncers and found that most were due to suffocation by improper positioning or strangulation in straps.

The researchers reviewed the reports of 47 deaths of children under two years old that happened in car seats, bouncers, swings, strollers or slings and were recorded by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission between 2004 and 2008.

The study used only reports submitted by consumers or manufacturers, so the number of deaths may actually be higher.

Most of the deaths occurred in car seats (31 of 47). Five happened in slings, four each in swings and bouncers and three in strollers.

About half of deaths in car seats were due to strangulation by the straps, while the other half were caused by suffocation due to positioning, the authors reported in The Journal of Pediatrics.

Strap strangulation usually happens when the restraints are not fastened as directed, Batra said. Whenever a child is in a car seat, the harness should be secured.

“If people leave an older infant or young toddler in a car seat and undo the straps thinking that it makes them more comfortable, that’s a significant hazard,” he said.

“A child properly secured in a car seat is in very little risk of danger,” he said.

However, many times the child falls asleep in the car seat and a parent or caregiver decides to bring the car seat, with baby still attached, into the home.

Dr. Shital N. Parikh, an orthopedic surgeon at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Ohio, has studied the risk factors for injury in these devices in infants up to age one. He also found car seats to be the most common setting.

“The commonest mechanism of injury was infants falling from car seats when not used in the car, used in the home,” Parikh told Reuters Health. Often parents would bring the car seat in the house while the infant still slept, undo the straps and place it on an elevated surface, he said.

Even four-month-old babies are mobile enough to wiggle out of the top straps and fall, or topple the whole seat from an elevated surface, he said.

“These are very simple things, very basic things,” Parikh said. “The basic idea is that you use (the devices) for their intended purpose only. For infants, you should not use it to make them sleep or carry them around if it’s not intended for that.”

Batra notes that baby in slings need to be “visible and kissable,” as a sling may put baby’s head in a hazardous position.

It only takes four to five minutes for an unattended baby to suffocate in one of these devices.

“That is one of the things we need to draw attention to,” Batra said. Sometimes a few minutes unattended is all it takes.

“If your infant is sleeping and you’re not observing them, then they need to be in a safe sleeping environment,” adhering to the ABCs, he said.

While it may seem safe to leave a baby in a car seat, swing, sling or bouncer for a few minutes unattended, go ahead and place the child in his or her crib. It may wake them up if they are sleeping, but it’s much safer than allowing them to continue to sleep in a device that was never intended for that purpose.

Source: Kathryn Doyle, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/04/29/us-car-seat-infant-safety-idUSKBN0NK21E20150429

Your Baby

New Moms Are Overspending on Baby Products.

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According to a new study, moms are feeling tremendous pressure to purchase expensive and soon –to –be outgrown brand name clothing for their infants. Moms are also overspending on formula because they tend to choose a name brand over a store brand.

Researchers found that mothers are cutting back in nearly every other area of their lives so they can buy brand names.

The “Brand” New Mom study of more than 1,900 moms, conducted by Kelton Research, found that today’s new mom often makes decisions based on guilt rather than practicality, even when it is clearly proven that a high-profile brand offers no clear benefits over other far less expensive options.

Why do they do it?

The study found one major reason is the confusing and anxiety-producing advertising and promotional messages that are everywhere.  New moms are particularly vulnerable. Their hormones are still adjusting, they are doing their best to take care of a newborn that wakes up all night, and many moms are scared of making a decision that might actually harm their baby. They are the perfect targets for creative advertising agencies. Who doesn’t want “the best” for their baby?

58 percent of expectant first-time moms admit they are consumed by thoughts about what products they need to buy their babies every day, and nearly 37 percent of moms express overall guilt about not being able to afford a specific baby product.

The economy is also adding to mom’s stress load.

- 59 % said they are worried about their personal financial situation.

- 53% confess that thoughts about their baby product budget plague them on a daily basis.

Moms may be stressing, but they are still overspending on name brand products. Three-quarters of moms surveyed have recently cut back on dining out, clothing for themselves, and entertainment. Only 13 percent have taken the same savings measures for their impending or new baby.

This study found that 85 percent of moms are far more tuned into ads related to babies or pregnancy than those with any other subject matter, and this increased attention to advertising can produce emotional stress. When it comes to this constant bombardment of baby-related advertising: 23% feel overwhelmed. 20 % feel anxious. 20% feel confused. And 35% of experienced moms admit that because of advertising they spent more than they had originally planned when their first child was a baby.

“This study sheds light on what moms are going through from both an emotional and economic standpoint,” said Sandra Gordon, national baby products expert and author of Consumer Reports Best Baby Products, 10th edition. “Moms are so intent on absorbing as much baby-related information as possible, and making the right purchasing decisions, that it can be easy to overlook inexpensive options that are just as safe and effective for their baby.”

More than half of moms are much more likely to buy store brands for household products, but don’t feel comfortable substituting store bands when it comes to their baby.

Less than 25% said they were open to buying store brand formula.

Baby formula is one of those products that some moms really struggle with. 43% say they feel guilty for using formula instead of breastfeeding their infant - which may be one of the reasons moms are willing to overspend on brand name formula. The other reason may be they just don’t trust that store brands are as good for their baby.

“These numbers are very consistent with what I see in my practice, and a clear indication of the challenges today’s mom faces with regard to the barrage of advertising messages she regularly sees,” said Dr. Jennifer Trachtenberg, assistant clinical professor of pediatrics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. “We know that when it comes to taking care of babies, breastfeeding is considered the gold standard. The reality, however, is that 80 percent of moms will use formula at some point, and it is not something they should feel guilty about. Also, they certainly don’t need to buy the most expensive formula just to alleviate that guilt.”

The study found that 68% of moms believed that the more expensive the formula the better the quality. 49% of new first-time moms believe name brand formulas offer more nutrition.

Is either one of these beliefs true? No.
The key, Dr. Trachtenberg said, is to educate moms with the facts on formula and provide them with all of their options, rather than making a decision based on which brand is the most heavily advertised and may be the highest priced.

“According to the Infant Formula Act, all infant formulas manufactured in the United States must contain the same key nutrients and adhere to the same quality and safety guidelines. This survey found that less than a quarter of the moms were willing to buy store brand formulas, which indicates that there is a significant knowledge gap. Far too many families are spending twice as much as they need to for infant formula, just to get a brand that is advertised,” said Dr. Trachtenberg. “Just like generic prescription medications have changed the healthcare landscape by proving more expensive does not mean better, store brand formulas can play a huge role in helping parents take the best possible care of their babies, as well as their budgets.”

New moms have a lot on their plate, as well as new dads.  Both are experiencing a life changing series of moments that revolve around a totally dependent infant. That’s actually the good news. Overspending on baby products is not going to ease the stress, and it’s not going to be better for baby. Don’t worry you’ll get the hang of parenting. For now you can spend less on clothing, diapers and formula and give yourself and your budget a break.

Source: http://media.prnewswire.com/en/jsp/latest.jsp?resourceid=4966025&access=EH

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