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Your Baby

Moms-to-be Need Folic Acid

1.45 to read

One of the best ways to have a healthy baby is to take good care of your own health.  Folic acid has been shown to help prevent certain birth defects, but now a new study suggests when a woman takes it in the first two months of pregnancy; her child may be less likely to have severe language delays.

Folic acid is a B vitamin (B9) found mostly in leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach, orange juice, and enriched grains.  It’s also available as a supplement.

American companies often add folic acid to their grains to help make sure that pregnant women are getting enough of the B vitamin.

“We don’t think people should change their behavior based on these findings,” said Dr. Ezra Susser from Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York, who worked on the study.

“But it does add weight to the public health recommendation to take folic acid early in pregnancy,” he told Reuters Health.

And, he added, it shows that “what you do during pregnancy… is not only important for birth but also for subsequent development".

The study took place in Norway, where 40,000 women – a few months into their pregnancy- were surveyed on what supplements they were taking in the four weeks before they got pregnant and eight weeks after conception.

When their children were three years old, Susser and his colleagues asked the same women about their kids’ language skills, including how many words they could string together in a phrase.

Toddlers who could only say one word at a time or who had “unintelligible utterances” were considered to have severe language delay. In total, about one in 200 kids fit into that category.

Four out of 1,000 kids born to women who took folic acid alone or combined with other vitamins had severe language delays. That compared to nine out of 1,000 kids whose moms didn’t take folic acid before and during early pregnancy.

The pattern remained after Susser’s team took into account other factors that were linked to both folic acid supplementation and language skills, such as a mom’s weight and education, and whether or not she was married.

The study can’t prove that folic acid, itself, prevents language delay, they wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association. But Susser said the vitamin is known to affect the growth of neurons and could influence how proteins are made from certain genes.

“The recommendation worldwide is that women should be on folate (folic acid) supplements through all their reproductive years,” Susser said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all women of childbearing age — and especially those who are planning a pregnancy — consume about 400 micrograms (0.4 milligrams) of folic acid every day. Adequate folic acid intake is very important before conception and at least 3 months afterward to potentially reduce the risk of having a fetus with a neural tube defect.

You can boost your intake by looking for breakfast cereals, breads, pastas, and rice containing 100% of the recommended daily folic acid allowance. But for most women, eating fortified foods isn’t enough. To reach the recommended daily level, you’ll probably need a vitamin supplement.

Your Baby

Acetaminophen Ranks Highest in Infants’ Accidental Poisonings

2:00

Infants are just as susceptible to accidental poisonings as toddlers and older children, according to a new study. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) was the most common medication error for infants. Some of the other products associated with accidental poisonings may surprise you.

The researchers look at data from all poison control center calls in a national database from 2004 to 2013 that related to babies younger than 6 months old.

Acetaminophen was the most reported medication mistake followed by H2-blockers (for acid reflux), gastrointestinal medications, combination cough / cold products, antibiotics and ibuprofen (such as Motrin or Advil).

The most common non-medication exposures were diaper care and rash products, plants and creams, lotions and make-up, the investigators found.

"I was surprised with the large number of exposures even in this young age group," said lead author Dr. A. Min Kang, a medical toxicology fellow at Banner-University Medical Center Phoenix in Arizona.

"Pediatricians typically do not begin poison prevention education until about 6 months of age, since the traditional hazard we think about is the exploratory ingestion -- that is when kids begin to explore their environment and get into things they are not supposed to," Kang added.

The research team found that there were more than 270,000 exposures reported during the decade of data, 97 percent of which were unintentional. However, over 37 percent were related to medication mistakes.

Acetaminophen was involved in more than 22,000 medication exposures and nearly 5,000 general exposures. This high rate reflects its frequent use because it's recommended instead of ibuprofen for infants, Kang pointed out.

"The concern with too much acetaminophen is liver failure although, luckily, young children are considered to be somewhat less likely to experience this than an adult because the metabolism is a little different," Kang said.

The current rate of acetaminophen mistakes may actually be lower notes Dr. Michael Cater, a pediatrician with St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, California, because infant drops are now standardized across manufacturers.

The number of ibuprofen exposures, however, surprised Cater since ibuprofen isn't recommended for those under 6 months old.

"Also surprising was the number of ethanol poisonings," likely from parents leaving empty glasses or bottles of alcohol around, he said. "Low-lying plants, some of which are toxic, are a source of concern, and this was a bit of a surprise to me."

Diaper creams and lotions likely top the list because they're easily reachable by infants when left on the diaper-changing areas, Cater added.

The AAP has a policy statement recommending that all liquid medications use metric units for dosing and that they include administration devices, such as syringes, to reduce the chance of an overdose.

Perhaps doctors should offer poison prevention education to caregivers earlier, even starting when a baby leaves the hospital, Kang suggested.

The poison control hotline phone number- 1-800-222-1222 – should also be posted in the home and programmed into parents and caregiver’s cell phones Kang said.

The findings were published online in the January edition of the journal Pediatrics, and in the February print edition.

Source: Tara Haelle, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20160113/acetaminophen-tops-list-of-accidental-infant-poisonings

Your Baby

Britax Recalls Car Seat Chest Clips Due to Infant Choking Hazard

1:30

Faulty chest clips on more than 100 models of Britax Care Safety car seats are being voluntarily recalled because the clips could break off and create a choking hazard for infants.

The company says that no injuries have been reported, but it has received complaints of chest clips breaking.

The recall will affect more than 200,000 car seats. However, Britax stresses that the car seats are still safe to use until a replacement kit is obtained. 

The chest clip is on the Britax B-Safe 35, B-Safe 35 Elite, and BOB B-Safe 35 infant seats.

The products were manufactured between Nov. 1, 2015, and May 31, 2017. To see the model numbers that are included in the voluntary recall, or to check the serial number of your seat, visit the company’s website set up for this recall at www.bsafe35clip.com. You can find the serial numbers on the "Date of Manufacture" label on the lower frame of the seat.

Britax is offering to replace the chest clip with a free kit that contains a new clip made from a different material. The kit comes with step-by-step instructions for replacement. Consumers are advised to routinely check their current chest clip until a replacement arrives.

Story sources: Alexandria McIntire, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20170623/recall-britax-car-seat-chest-clip

Ashlee Kieler, https://consumerist.com/2017/06/21/britax-recalls-207000-carseats-over-chest-clips-that-can-break/

Your Baby

Delayed Cord Clamping May Improve Infant’s Health

2:00

According to a new study, delaying umbilical cord cutting by 2 minutes after birth may result in better development in a newborn’s first days of life.

When to cut the umbilical cord has been debated and changed over a long period of time. Before studies began in the mid-1950s, cord clamping within 1 minute of birth was defined as "early clamping," and "late clamping" was defined as more than 5 minutes after birth. And the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) have stated, "the ideal timing for umbilical cord clamping has yet to be established."

To provide further evidence in the debate of early versus late cord clamping, researchers led by Professor Julio José Ochoa Herrera of the University of Granada, assessed newborn outcomes for infants born to 64 healthy pregnant women to determine the impact of clamping timing on oxidative stress and the inflammatory signal produced during delivery.

All of these women had a normal pregnancy and spontaneous vaginal delivery. However, half of the women's newborns had their umbilical cord cut 10 seconds after delivery and half had it cut after 2 minutes.

Results showed that with late cord clamping there was an increase in antioxidant volume and moderation of inflammatory effects in newborns.

Other studies have shown that delaying clamping allows more time for blood to move from the placenta through the cord, improving iron and hemoglobin levels in newborns.

If delaying cord clamping is beneficial for newborns, then why do many doctors perform a quick cut? Apparently there are several reasons.

According to ACOG, a previous series of studies into blood volume changes after birth concluded that in healthy term infants, more than 90% of blood volume was attained within the first few breaths he or she took after birth.

As a result of these findings, as well as a lack of other recommendations regarding optimal timing, the amount of time between birth and umbilical cord clamping was widely shortened; in most cases, cord clamping occurs within 15-20 seconds after birth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) believes waiting longer is better. WHO supports late cord clamping (1-3 minutes) because it "allows blood flow between the placenta and neonate to continue, which may improve iron status in the infant for up to 6 months after birth."

ACOG states on their website that “Concerns exist regarding universally adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping. Delay in umbilical cord clamping may jeopardize timely resuscitation efforts, if needed, especially in preterm infants. However, because the placenta continues to perform gas exchange after delivery, sick and preterm infants are likely to benefit most from additional blood volume derived from a delay in umbilical cord clamping.”

WHO states clearly that that early cord clamping - less than 1 minute after birth - is not advised unless the newborn is asphyxiated and needs to be moved for resuscitation.

Simply holding a wet, crying and wiggling baby for 2 minutes may also prove difficult for physicians whose hands are gloved. The better option may be to place the baby on the mother’s stomach, wait the 2 minutes and then cut the cord.

More and more studies are finding that in certain circumstances, waiting a couple of minutes longer to cut the umbilical cord may be best for baby.

According to this study, there’s really no reason why newborns from a normal pregnancy and vaginal delivery should not be allowed at least 2 minutes before the cord is clamped after birth.

Mothers and fathers-to-be should discuss cord cutting timing with their doctor before the baby is born. If your preference is to allow more time before cutting the cord when your baby arrives, let your physician know ahead of time.  He or she can then advise you on when early clamping may be necessary and when it can wait a couple of extra minutes.

Scientists from the University of Granada and the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital in Spain conducted the research. The results were published in the journal Pediatrics. Source: Marie Ellis, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287041.php

http://www.acog.org

Your Baby

Gap Between Pregnancies Linked to Autism

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Does it make a difference how long a woman waits between pregnancies in the health of her newborn?  According to a new large study, the closer the pregnancies, the higher the risk that her child will have autism or other neurodevelopmental disabilities.

"Based on the current best available evidence, it appears that the ideal inter-pregnancy interval -- the time elapsed between the birth of the immediate older sibling and the conception of the younger sibling -- is 2 to 5 years, in order to reduce the risk of autism," said study author Dr. Agustin Conde-Agudelo. He is a researcher at the World Health Organization Collaborating Center in Human Reproduction at the University of Valle in Cali, Colombia.

Researchers looked at existing studies involving more than 1.1 million children and also found that waiting too long between pregnancies (5 years or more) could raise the odds of autism.

The reasons for the link between short pregnancy spacing and autism are not known noted Conde-Agudelo. He said that scientists believe nutrition and other factors may play a role.

The study doesn’t prove that either long or short intervals between pregnancies actually causes autism, just that there seems to be an association between the two.

Conde-Agudelo and his team reviewed seven large studies reporting a link between short birth spacing and autism. The investigators found that children born to women with less than 12 months between pregnancies were nearly twice as likely to develop autism as children born to women with three years or longer between pregnancies.

Three of those studies also reported a significant link between long pregnancy spacing and autism, especially for two milder types, which were formerly called Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder.

Meanwhile, the findings also suggested that shorter pregnancy spacing was associated with an increased risk of developmental delays and cerebral palsy, which can affect body movement, muscle coordination and balance.

Conde-Agudelo and other researchers conjectured that the mother’s depleted levels of folic acid between closely spaced pregnancies might play a role in the rise of autism risk.

The B vitamin folic acid is necessary for proper brain and spinal cord development in fetuses, and women are typically advised to take folic acid supplements during pregnancy.

As for longer pregnancy intervals also potentially linked to autism, Conde-Agudelo said it's been hypothesized that related factors such as infertility, unintended pregnancy and maternal inflammation levels may affect autism possibility.

Most neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, are thought to be caused by a complex mix of factors. These include genetics, environment, parental health and behaviors during pregnancy, and complications during birth, the researchers said in background notes.

The study was published in the April online edition of the journal Pediatrics, and will appear in the May print issue.

Story source: Maureen Salamon,  http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/autism-news-51/pregnancies-close-together-may-raise-autism-risk-study-says-709733.html

Your Baby

Babies May Never Outgrow Their Native Language

1:30

How early are babies able to learn their native language? According to a new study from South Korea, as early as the first few months of life.

The study takes an interesting look at the impression that language makes on newborns and whether babies actually retain any birth language ability even if they are adopted and grow up in a different country.

For this study, adults that were adopted from South Korea as babies by Dutch-speaking families were asked to pronounce Korean consonants after a short training course.

Researchers found that the now Dutch-speaking adults exceeded expectations at Korean pronunciation when retrained after losing their birth language.

The two languages have little in common. Korean consonants are unlike those spoken in Dutch.

The participants were compared with a group of adults who had not been exposed to the Korean language as children and then rated by native Korean speakers.

Both groups performed to the same level before training, but after training the international adoptees exceeded expectations.

There was no difference between children who were adopted under six months of age - before they could speak - and those who were adopted after 17 months, when they had learned to talk.

Because of the young ages of the adopted children, researchers suggested the language knowledge retained is more abstract in nature, rather than dependent on experience.

Dr Jiyoun Choi of Hanyang University in Seoul led the research.

The study is the first to show that early experiences of adopted children in their birth language, continues to give them an advantage decades later, even if they think it is forgotten, she said.

Other studies suggest that babies may learn their natural language as early as in the womb. Typically, babies begin uttering vowel sounds at about 6 weeks, but won’t be able to make words - associated with meanings - until around 12 to 16 months of age.  How early a child learns to speak is dependent on factors such as, how much parents, siblings or relatives interact and talk to them, along with good hearing and health.

''Please remember that [the] language learning process occurs very early in life, and useful language knowledge is laid down in the very early months of life as our study suggests,'' Choi said.

''Try to talk to your babies as much as possible because they are absorbing and digesting what you are saying.''

Talking to and positive interaction with your baby not only helps him or her learn language quicker, but also builds a foundation for feeling safe and valued as a unique and important member of the family. 

Story source: Helen Briggs, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-38653906

Your Baby

Infants That “Resettle” Sleep Better and Longer

2:00

Does this sound familiar?

You finally get your baby to fall asleep and shuffle off to bed yourself. Just as you’re drifting into a deep sleep (say about 45 minutes after you’ve laid down), you hear the cries of your little one. She’s awake and letting the world know it.

The dilemma becomes, do you get up and rock her back to sleep or let her “cry it out” and see if she’ll go back to sleep on her own?

According to a new study, infants who know how to “resettle” after waking up are more likely to sleep through the night.

When a baby “resettles” or self-settles, they have learned how to make themselves fall back asleep without the help of a parent or guardian. While many parents just can’t bear to listen to their baby cry, others find that with patience and a few changes to their baby’s sleep routine, resettling takes effect and their infant is able to fall back to sleep quicker and sleep longer without assistance.

For this study, British researchers made overnight infrared video recordings of just over 100 infants when they were 5 weeks and 3 months old.

The videos were analyzed to determine changes in sleep and waking during this age span, a time when parents hope their baby will start sleeping more at night, while crying less.  “Infants are capable of resettling themselves back to sleep by three months of age,” according to the study by Ian St James-Roberts and colleagues of the University of London. “Both autonomous resettling and prolonged sleeping are involved in ‘sleeping through the night’ at an early age.”

The “clearest developmental progression” between video recordings was an increase in length of sleeps: from a little over 2 hours at 5 weeks to 3.5 hours at 3 months. Only about 10% of infants slept continuously for 5 hours or more at 5 weeks, compared to 45% at 3 months.

At both ages, about one-fourth of the infants awoke and resettled themselves at least once during the night. These infants were able to get back to sleep with little to no crying or fussing.

“Self-resettling at 5 weeks predicted prolonged sleeping at 3 months,” the researchers write. Sixty-seven percent of infants who resettled in the first recording slept continuously for at least 5 hours in the second recording, compared to 38% who didn’t resettle.

The 3-month-old babies were more likely to suck on their fingers and hands than the 5 week old infants. Sucking seemed to be a self-regulatory strategy that helped them fall back to or maintain sleep.

When a baby wakes up and cries throughout the night, parents are the ones that end up exhausted. Letting your infant learn how to resettle make take a little extra effort at the beginning, but can reap the reward of more sleep in the long run.

Letting your baby learn how to resettle doesn’t mean they are not attended to when there is a need, such as when they need changing, hungry or are ill.

Babycenter.com has a good article on how to teach your baby to soothe him or herself to sleep. The link is provided below.

The video study was published in the June edition of the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics.

Sources: http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/article/babies-can-resettle-likely-sleep-night/

http://www.babycenter.com/404_how-do-i-teach-my-baby-to-soothe-himself-to-sleep_1272921.bc

 

 

Your Baby

Having a Baby? Keep Your Pets!

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In a world full of allergens, you might think that having pets around could only make things worse.  But according to a new study from Canada, families with dogs and cats may unwittingly be protecting their infant children from not only allergies but obesity as well.

University of Alberta epidemiologist Anita Kozyrskyj and a team of researchers analyzed more than 700 Canadian children. They found babies exposed to pets while in the womb or up to three months recorded an "abundance" of ruminococcus and oscillospira (both are bacteria found in the gut,) the latter of which is associated with leanness or lower body mass index, notes the study - published in the journal Microbiome.

Kozyrskyj said the two types of bacteria increased "twofold" when a pet was in the house. The team said the theory is that early exposure to bacteria — like that from a dog — creates a type of resistance.

Unborn babies can benefit from allergy resistance by being indirectly exposed through their mother’s womb. The microbes can pass from pet to mother to baby.

Even if a parent decides not to keep pets after the baby is born, if pets were in the house during the pregnancy, the infant may gain some benefit anyway.

The findings also suggest pet exposure could cut down the risk of group B strep, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said could cause blood infection, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. Doctors treat against group B strep by giving mothers antibiotics during the delivery process.

Dogs were shown to offer higher levels of the beneficial microbes.

Story source: Sean Rossman, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/04/07/why-owning-pet-could-protect-your-baby-obesity-and-allergies/100162098/#

Your Baby

Prenatal Exposure To Pesticides

1.30 to read

Moms exposed to higher levels of pesticides have lower mental development scores. Children whose mothers had higher levels of exposure to a substance found in a commonly used pesticide were more likely to get lower scores on a mental developmental test at 3 years of age than children whose mothers were exposed to lower levels or not at all, new research says.

Megan Horton, a postdoctoral research fellow at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City, and her colleagues followed 348 mothers from low-income areas of New York City whose prenatal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides -- found in pesticides commonly used around the home -- was tracked. The researchers measured not the common pyrethroid called permethrin but rather piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a chemical added to permethrin that boosts its potency, Horton said. They measured PBO because permethrin is metabolized quickly and difficult to measure, she added. The study authors measured the mothers' prenatal exposure by taking air samples or blood samples. To get the air samples, mothers wore backpacks that collected air from their breathing zone, which was then analyzed. Children were then put into four groups or "quartiles," depending on the level of their mothers' exposures to PBO during pregnancy. At age 3, the children were evaluated using standard scales to assess their cognitive and motor development, according to the study published online Feb. 7 in the journal Pediatrics. "Kids who were in the highest quartile range of exposure to PBO were three times as likely to be in the delayed category, compared to kids with lower exposure," Horton said. Horton's team compensated for factors such as gender, ethnicity, education of the mothers, and toxins such as tobacco smoke in the home. Horton said it's impossible to say what levels of pesticide are safe, partly because many factors come into play, such as the type of pesticide used and the ventilation provided. She did not have data on the frequency of pesticide use. "I don't know whether the mothers used it five times a week or once a week," she added. Pyrethroid insecticides have replaced another class of bug killers, known as organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, Horton said. Increasing pesticide regulations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have resulted in fewer residential exposures to OP insecticides, she said. But, pyrethroid insecticides have not been evaluated for long-term effects on the body after low-level exposure, she said. Jennifer Sass, a senior scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council, who reviewed the study but was not involved with it, said the findings ''should convince every parent and want-to-be parent to avoid these pesticides." Horton suggests that parents turn to so-called integrated pest management, which includes common-sense measures to control pests such as eating only in home eating areas, not bedrooms; keeping cracks and crevices in the house repaired to keep out pests; using trash cans with a lid and liner to contain garbage; and storing food properly. You can also find piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in medications used for treating scabies (a skin infestation) and lice infestations of the head, body, and pubic area. Some of the products containing piperonyl butoxide (PBO),are listed below. Check with your physician before using these products if you are pregnant. •       A-200 Lice Control® Topical Spray (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       Lice-X Liquid® Topical Solution (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       Pronto® (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       Pyrinyl® (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       R & C® (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       RID® Medicated Shampoo (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       Stop Lice® Maximum Strength Medicated Shampoo (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) •       Tegrin-LT® (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin) Triple X Pediculicide® Medicated Shampoo (containing Piperonyl Butoxide, Pyrethrin)

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