Your Baby

From Breast to Bottle; An Adventure

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Ah yes, I remember breastfeeding my baby.

As a young and somewhat naïve mother, it was like stepping onto foreign soil. A place I’d never visited before.

For me, the most unexpected part of this ancient ritual was how painful it was at first.  I’d heard about the bonding it would bring, the day and night hours required and how if I ate certain foods before feeding, my baby could end up with a bad bout of gas.

However, no one mentioned that it was going to hurt like crazy until my nipples “toughened up,” (as my doctor was fond of saying) or how my breasts would become milk waterfalls cascading through my blouse while grocery shopping. Eventually, I got the hang of it and it began to feel like a natural extension of being a mom.

When it came time to transition to bottle-feeding, I actually felt a little sad about letting go of what had become a special time with my baby girl. Her fuzzy little head resting against my breast and her curious eyes watching my every expression as she ate.  We had a lot of one-sided conversations with me telling her about my day and her sucking, burping and falling asleep.

Alas though, one cannot breastfeed forever. So I began again with learning how to keep my baby well nourished while trying to figure out how much formula to give her and how to warm a bottle without scalding us both.

I breastfed for about 5 months – give or take a few weeks. Making the changeover left me feeling a little guilty. My little one seemed to really dislike the replacement bottle, so we did it in stages. I also added breast milk to the bottle at first so she would recognize the taste. It was not a smooth transition.

We ultimately came to an agreement that she would drink from the bottle if I would rock her and sing to her and make funny faces. Another caveat was we’d have to do it in short spurts of time – she would refuse-then accept, refuse-accept. I think it was so that she could feel like she had a little control over the whole unsettling situation. Agreed.

Shortly after we started working on the bottle arrangement, my pediatrician suggested that adding small amounts of solid foods to her diet might also be helpful in weaning her off the breasts.

My first response to this perfectly sane idea was... “What real foods? Biscuits and gravy? Scrambled eggs and toast? Shouldn’t I put these foods in a blender or something? I don’t think she can eat them straight-up.”

“Uh, no” she responded calmly. “Let’s start with a small amount of baby cereal.”

And so, a new tradition began. Here’s how it went.

Make a little baby cereal. Put it on a tiny little spoon and attempt to delicately get it in her tightly shut mouth.

Taste the baby cereal (to make sure it is not too hot, not too cold.)

Stir cereal and try again to get the itty-bitty spoon into her itty-bitty securely shut mouth.

Lead by example.

“Watch mommy. This is really good cereal. Mmmm – I think this is the best cereal I’ve ever eaten.” Actually it’s not bad.

Stick finger in cereal and rub on baby’s squeezed tight-as-a drum, never to be opened mouth.

Switch to a much larger spoon and start scooping.

“You’re missing out on some amazing cereal, sweetie. Yum, yum, yum.”

Repeat as necessary.

“Oh look… it’s all gone. Good job!”

It took awhile to finally make the switch from breast to bottle. It was quite an experience for both of us. Two important goals were eventually accomplished; my sweet baby survived and flourished and my breasts’ finally quit hurting.

If you’re breastfeeding, someday you’ll introduce a bottle, sippy-cup or spoon to your child. Expect a battle, it’s ok. Keep a grip on patience and humor. You’ll need them both.

Warm compresses can ease the discomfort of sore breasts and gradually nursing or pumping less will signal your body to stop producing copious amounts of milk.

I’d recommend keeping a small towel in your purse (speaking from experience.) You might also want to stash an extra shirt in the car – and a bra -just sayin.

And you know what? You can ask for help. Have daddy or grandparents, other family members or good friends hold the bottle and make funny faces. Sometimes it actually helps to have someone without your familiar breasts, smell and voice take part in introducing the bottle to your baby.

Every mother who has breastfed has her own stories to tell when it came time to wean her infant. You’ll have yours and most likely you’ll smile and say softly – Ah yes, I remember breastfeeding (and baby cereal). 

Your Baby

Should Women Eat Fish While Pregnant?

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Fish are high in several beneficial nutrients, including some that are related to healthy brain development. But several organizations, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), recommend that women who are pregnant limit the amount of fish they eat.

The reason is that most fish and shellfish contain low-levels of methylmercury.

Almost all people have at least trace amounts of methylmercury in their tissues, reflecting the organic compound’s widespread presence in the environment. Fetuses, infants and children are the most vulnerable to the possible adverse effects of mercury exposure.

One of the major concerns of the medical community and mothers-to-be is the possibility of a link between eating fish that contains mercury, and their child developing autism.  

A new study addresses that concern and says that children exposed to low levels of mercury in the womb because their mothers ate large amounts of fish, don’t appear to be at an increased risk for autism.

The new findings from more than 30 years of research in the Republic of Seychelles -- a group of islands in the western Indian Ocean -- found no such link, the study authors said.

"This study shows no evidence of a correlation between low level mercury exposure and autism spectrum-like behaviors among children whose mothers ate, on average, up to 12 meals of fish each week during pregnancy," study lead author Edwin van Wijngaarden, associate professor in the public health sciences department at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, said in a medical center news release.

"These findings contribute to the growing body of literature that suggest that exposure to the chemical does not play an important role in the onset of these behaviors," he added.

One autism expert added a note of caution, however.

"The study found no link between high mercury levels and later autism spectrum disorder behaviors. However, this should not be taken to mean that high levels of mercury are safe to ingest," said Alycia Hallday, senior director of environmental and clinical science at the advocacy group Autism Speaks.

"Other studies comparing this [Seychelles] cohort to those in other parts of the world indicate that this cohort may be spared from many adverse effects because it is consumed with nutrient-rich ocean fish," she explained.

For the study, the researchers initially determined the level of prenatal mercury exposure by analyzing the mothers' hair samples. Then the researchers used two questionnaires -- one given to parents, the other to the children's teachers -- to see if the children showed signs of autism spectrum-like behaviors. The tests included questions on language skills, communication skills and repetitive behaviors. While the tests don't give a definitive diagnosis, they are used widely in the United States as an initial screening tool and may indicate the need for additional testing, the researchers said.

The study also noted the concerns of and limitations recommended by the FDA and other organizations.

"This study shows no consistent association in children with mothers with mercury levels that were six to 10 times higher than those found in the U.S. and Europe. This is a sentinel population and if (the association between low-level mercury exposure and autism) does not exist here than it probably does not exist," Philip Davidson, principal investigator of the Seychelles Child Development Study and professor emeritus in pediatrics at the University of Rochester Medical Center, said in the news release.

The finding lends support to an emerging belief that the good may outweigh the possible bad when it comes to eating fish during pregnancy. Specifically, if the mercury did not harm brain development at the levels of exposure experienced by the children in this study, then the benefits of the nutrients in fish may counteract or surpass the potential negative effects of mercury, the study authors said.

So, which fish have “low” or “high” mercury content? The American Pregnancy Association provides this list on their website.

Highest Mercury

AVOID

  • Marlin
  • Orange roughy
  • Tilefish
  • Swordfish
  • Shark
  • Mackerel (king)
  • Tuna (bigeye, Ahi)

High Mercury

Eat no more than three 6-oz servings per month

  • Sea Bass (Chilean)
  • Bluefish
  • Grouper
  • Mackerel (Spanish, Gulf)
  • Tuna (canned, white albacore) See tuna chart below
  • Tuna (Yellow fin)

Lower Mercury

Eat no more than six 6-oz servings per month

  • Bass (Striped, Black)
  • Carp
  • Cod (Alaskan)
  • Croaker (White Pacific)
  • Halibut ( Pacific and Atlantic) Jacksmelt ( Silverside)
  • Lobster
  • Mahi Mahi
  • Monkfish
  • Perch (freshwater)
  • Sablefish
  • Skate
  • Snapper
  • Sea Trout (Weakfish)
  • Tuna (canned, chunk light)
  • Tuna (Skipjack)

Lowest Mercury

Enjoy two 6-oz servings per week

  • Anchovies
  • Butterfish
  • Catfish
  • Clam
  • Crab (Domestic)
  • Crawfish/crayfish
  • Croaker
  • Flounder
  • Haddock
  • Hake
  • Herring
  • Mackerel (N Atlantic, Chub)
  • Mullet
  • Oysters
  • Perch (ocean)
  • Plaice
  • Salmon (Canned, Fresh)
  • Sardines
  • Scallops
  • Shad (American)
  • Shrimp
  • Sole
  • Squid (Calamari)
  • Tilapia
  • Trout (freshwater)
  • Whitefish
  • Whiting

The study was published online July 23 in the journal Epidemiology

Sources: http://consumer.healthday.com/pregnancy-information-29/pregnancy-news-543/breaking-brief-7-23-mercury-autism-epidemiology-urmc-release-678533.html

http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/fishmercury.htm

http://www.epa.gov/hg/effects.htm

Your Baby

Kids Left In Car Alert Devises Aren't Reliable

1:45 to read

It’s hot outside, but inside a car that's not running, it can be an oven. When the temperature is 88 degrees outside, a closed car will be 99 degrees in 10 minute. In 20 minutes it will be 117 degrees. During a typical Texas summer, it’s likely to be 100 degrees outside by noon.

Every summer children are left in hot cars and die. These are all preventable deaths.

Products designed to prevent parents and caregivers from accidentally leaving babies and toddlers in cars have become quite popular. But a review of 18 commercial devices, including systems integrated into a car, shows none works well enough to rely on.

“While these devices are very well-intended, none of them are a full or complete solution for making sure a parent never leaves a baby behind in a hot car,” David Strickland, administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), told reporters.

NHTSA says 527 children have died of heat stroke after being left in cars since 1998, or about 38 every year. “In 2011, 33 such cases were reported,” NHTSA said in a statement, citing Jan Null of San Francisco State University, who tracks the reports.

“We aren’t only talking about the 98 degree day when you leave your child for eight hours while you are at work,” said Dr. Kristy Arbogast of The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, who led the research. “This can happen very quickly.”

Arbogast and colleagues reviewed every product they could find: pads that sense if a child is in his or her car seat; devices that detect whether the seatbelt is buckled; chest clips that attach to the restraint; sensors that can tell if the back door was opened; and alarms that remind parents to check. They thoroughly tested three of the devices.

“The devices were inconsistent and unreliable in their performance,” they wrote in their report, commissioned by NHTSA and released on Monday.

“They often required adjusting of the position of the child within the child restraint, the distance to activation varied across trials and scenarios and they experienced continual synching/un-synching during use,” they added.

Sometimes a cell-phone interfered with the device, and spilled juice or milk could knock some out completely. “In sum, the devices require considerable effort from the parent/caregiver to ensure smooth operation and often that operation is not consistent,” Arbogast’s team concluded. “None directly address the root cause of the hot environment that led to the potential for heat stroke.”

Many relied on an alarm that was on the car’s key fob and that worried Arbogast. “What if my husband was taking the child and I forget to give him the key fob?” she asked.

“Most important, it should be noted that these devices which integrate into a child restraint would not be applicable in scenarios where the child is playing and gets locked in the vehicle (30 percent of fatalities) or in a scenario where the parent/caregiver intentionally leaves the child in the vehicle (17 percent of fatalities),” the report notes.

Parents have seen the reports of these tragedies and are looking for help to protect their child. “There has been a recent rise in demand for technologies to prevent these deaths by reminding the caregiver that the child is in the car, as about half of these children have inadvertently been forgotten,” the report reads.

Experts suggest that parents and caregivers “layer” their routine by adding steps to exiting the car. Put your purse or briefcase in the backseat as a reminder. You might even want to consider putting one shoe in the back seat, anything that will remind you to look at your child before you leave the car. 

Other suggestions parents or caregivers might want to try:

- Leave a large teddy bear in the front seat as a reminder.

- Setting an alarm on your cell phone to remind you to check for your child. Set it for about the time it usually takes to arrive where you are going.

- Having a routine with the child’s caregiver. “If it is well-established that when your child shows up in the morning, if they don’t show up within 10 minutes of that time the daycare provider calls you or sends a text,” Arbogast suggested.

Source: http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/07/30/13033698-devices-cant-save-ba...(direct)|utmccn=(direct)|utmcmd=(none)&__utmv=238145375.|8=Earned%20By=msnbc%7Chealth=1^12=Landing%20Content=Mixed=1^13=Landing%20Hostname=www.msnbc.msn.com=1^30=Visit%20Type%20to%20Content=Earned%20to%20Mixed=1&__utmk=69486035

Your Baby

Radiation In Milk: Should Parents Worry?

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The radiation found is more than 5,000 times smaller than the level that would require any action from the FDA. “These types of findings are to be expected in the coming days, and are far below levels of public health concern, including for infants and children,” the agency said. One of the most nutritional supplements children, particularly babies and toddlers, receive almost daily is milk. Since news of the Japanese nuclear power plant explosions, some parents are asking – how safe is the milk I give my child?

According to the EPA, the FDA, and scientists who study radiation, the risk of dangerous radiation levels in the nation’s milk supply is small. Recent reports from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration say that very low levels of radiation have turned up in milk samples on the West coast. Traces of radioactive Iodine-131 were found in milk in California and Washington state. Federal and state authorities are monitoring for contamination as the nuclear crisis continues to unfold in Japan. The radiation found is more than 5,000 times smaller than the level that would require any action from the FDA. “These types of findings are to be expected in the coming days, and are far below levels of public health concern, including for infants and children,” the  agency said. Robert Henkin, professor emeritus of radiology at Loyola University’s Strich School of Medicine, agrees that the levels detected are nothing to be concerned about at this time. Henkin told National Public Radio’s Health Blog Shots "We are exposed to tons of natural radiation, the amount is a fraction of our yearly background exposure.” Even tainted Japanese milk, one sample of which reportedly had over 1,500 becquerels per liter (50,000 times the amount found in Washington), would only be dangerous if you drank 58,000 glasses. People are often exposed to low levels of radiation through common occurrences such as smoking, flying in airplanes, dental x-rays, mammograms and exposure to natural radiation from the soil. Though radioactive material spreading from the Japanese power plant reached the West Coast days ago, radiation levels detected so far are well below normal exposure. Also,  because iodine -131 has a short half-life of  8 days- this level is likely to rapidly decrease. Levels of iodine 131 entering the air can be very diluted, but if the iodine is deposited on grass eaten by cows, the cows will re-concentrate it in their milk by a factor of 1,000. This is mainly a concern with fresh milk, not for dairy products that are stored before consumption. Milk provides calcium for strong bones and teeth, and according to medical research, milk can improve the intake of minerals and vitamins. A glassful of milk contains vitamin A & B for good eyesight and increasing red blood cell count, carbohydrates for  energy, potassium for proper nerve function, magnesium for muscular function, phosphorous for energy release, protein for body repair and growth. The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that parents begin low fat milk after age two years. Before that age, toddlers should be either breastfeeding or drinking whole milk, but after age two you can start giving a child 2%, 1%, or skim milk. And of course they should be either breastfeeding or drinking an iron fortified infant formula before age 12 months.

Your Baby

Twitter Question from @GeenasMom

Jill writes:  Is it true that if a small child drinks too much milk it can deplete their body of iron?  I read that somewhere.

Dr. Sue says:  This true.  Too much milk can cause occult GI bleeding and loss of hemoglobin and subsequent anemia. While milk is great and wonderful for growing bones, you should limit a toddler’s intake to about 12 – 18 ounces per day. Thanks for the tweet!

Your Baby

Evenflo Recalls 1.3 Million Child Seat Buckles

1.45 read

Evenflo Company Inc. is voluntarily recalling 1.3 million convertible car seats and harnessed booster seats due to the risk that during an emergency a child may not be able to be removed quickly.

The buckles on the car seats and booster seats may become stuck in the locked position. The National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA) said the buckles used in the recall models were manufactured between 2011 and 2014.

Evenflo’s website states that “These select models use a harness crotch buckle which may become resistant to unlatching over time, due to exposure to various contaminants (like food and drinks) that are present in everyday use of the convertible car seat or harnessed booster by toddlers. This condition may make it difficult to remove a child from the vehicle. There is no such risk if the buckle is functioning normally. These convertible car seats and harnessed boosters meet all requirements for crashworthiness under the federal FMVSS 213 safety standard and can continue to be used to transport your child safely, if you are not experiencing difficulty unlatching the buckle. Importantly, Evenflo has received no reports of injuries to children in connection with the use of this buckle on the seats that are subject to this recall.”

The recall models include:  

  • Momentum – Model number prefix- 385
  • Chase - Model number prefix- 306, 329
  • Maestro – Model number prefix- 310
  • Symphony - Model number prefix-345, 346
  • Snugli All in One - Model number prefix- 345, 346
  • Titan - Model number prefix- 371
  • SureRide - Model number prefix- 371
  • Secure Kid & Snugli Booster - Model number prefix- 308

Evenflo is providing consumers a remedy kit, free-of-charge that includes a replacement buckle and instructions for installing the new buckle. The remedy kit is available by placing an order with Evenflo on their website at www.buckle.evenflo.com, or calling 1-800-490-7591.

Evenflo requests that consumers not return the convertible car seats or harnessed boosters to retailers.

The website also contains a link for instructions on cleaning the buckles.

The NHTSA is also investigating the safety of Evenflo’s rear-facing infant seats.

Source: http://www.mbtmag.com/news/2014/04/evenflo-recalling-13m-child-seat-buckles

http://safety.evenflo.com/cs/sc/cssc99_RD.phtml?rid=EFR36&src=WEB

Your Baby

No Link Between Vaccines and Autism

1.30 to read

A new study slated to appear in the Journal of Pediatrics, says that there is no association between the amount of vaccines a young child receives and autism. Some parents have worried that there may be a link and have opted out of having their child vaccinated or reduced the number of vaccines recommended.

The percentage of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased by 72% since 2007. Some experts believe that changes in the diagnostic criteria may account for some of the increase as well as better screening tools and rating scales.

According to a statement released from the journal, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Abt Associates analyzed data from children with and without ASD.

Researchers examined each child's cumulative exposure to antigens, the substances in vaccines that cause the body's immune system to produce antibodies to fight disease, and the maximum number of antigens each child received in a single day of vaccination, the journal's statement said.

The antigen totals were the same for children with and without ASD, researchers found.

Scientists believe genetics play a fundamental role in the risk for a child developing autism (80-90%), but recent studies also suggests that the father’s age at the time of conception may also be a contributor by increasing risks for genetic mistakes in the sperm that could be passed along to offspring.

Parents have worried about a link between vaccines and autism for decades despite the growing body of scientific evidence disproving such an association.

Source: Luciana Lopez, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/29/us-usa-health-autism-idUSBRE92S0GO20130329

Your Baby

Snoring Infants; Behavioral Problems Later

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Snoring is usually associated with adults, but even infants and toddlers can be prone to snoring. A new study suggests that snorers among this age group are more likely to develop behavioral problems by the age of seven.

The study, published online and in the journal Pediatrics, says that later in life behavioral issues such as hyperactivity and inattention, emotional problems such as anxiety and depression, conduct problems such as rule-breaking and aggressiveness and problems with peer relationship may be linked to snoring in infants and toddlers.

Researchers assessed more than 11,000 children in England and followed their progress for six years beginning when they were about 6 months old.

Parents were asked about snoring, mouth breathing and witnessed apnea -- when a child takes abnormally long pauses in breathing during sleep -- at various points throughout infancy and childhood. Taken together, those symptoms are called sleep-disordered breathing.

Parents also filled out questionnaires about their child's behavior at the ages of 4 and 7.

What they found was that the children with the worst snoring and sleep disturbed breathing were almost twice as likely to have behavioral problems by the age of seven than kids whose breathing was normal. Kids were considered to have behavioral issues if their parent's ratings were in the top 10 percent, relative to kids their age, for problem behaviors.

"Parents should pay close attention to their child's sleep, and if you think something is going on you should consult a pediatrician or a sleep specialist," said study author Karen Bonuck, a professor of family and social medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York City.

The study did not show that snoring or sleep disturbed breathing actually caused the behavioral issues, only that there could be an association between the two. There may be several reasons for this. Just like in adults, a bad night’s sleep can affect how well children function through-out the day. By interfering with the quality of rest, sleep-disordered breathing leaves kids overtired. That may contribute to behavioral issues, such as being easily distracted, hyperactivity and irritability.

Other studies have shown that sleep -disordered breathing can cause a lack of oxygen to the brain, carbon monoxide buildup and abnormal gas exchanges. These can contribute to long-term health issues for children.

"We are sleeping to restore our brains, and sleep-disordered breathing interferes with that process," Bonuck explained. "For kids, these are critical periods in brain development."

Heidi Connolly, division chief for pediatric sleep medicine at University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, said the study adds to a growing body of research showing that snoring, mouth breathing and sleep apnea in children should be taken seriously.

"These findings echo many of the other studies that show having sleep apnea and symptoms of snoring are bad for neurodevelopmental outcomes in children," Connolly said.

While snoring is a symptom of sleep apnea, it can have other causes, such as nasal allergies. Other studies suggest that even snoring alone, without apnea, can cause kids to do worse developmentally, she added.

"We need to think of that in primary care settings, and screen children for snoring," she said. "Kids who snore need to be evaluated and treated promptly, as you would any other medical condition."

Snoring occurs when the palate and the base of the tongue vibrate against each other. In sleep apnea, the airway is blocked. When kids try to breathe, negative pressure squeezes the airway shut, Connolly explained. That causes kids to wake up partially to take a breath.

Obesity is a major risk factor for sleep apnea in children, but normal-weight kids can get it, too.

"If your child is snoring on a nightly basis, not just when they are exposed to tobacco smoke or they have a cold or they just hung out with the neighbors' cat that they're allergic to, those children need to be evaluated for sleep apnea," Connolly said.

Treatments can include removing the tonsils and adenoids; topical nasal steroids or other anti-inflammatory medications; weight loss; and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices.

If you notice that your infant or toddler is snoring, or doesn’t seem to be sleeping normally, talk to your pediatrician about it. Not only because of this study, but staying on top of this health issue is an important step to helping your child rest well and develop well.

Source: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2012/03/05/snoring-to...

Your Baby

Safer Baby Cribs

1.45 to read

Good News for Babies! After years of accidents- including some that were fatal- caused by unsafe baby cribs, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has strengthened the safety requirements for baby-crib production.There was excellent news from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission for babies, parents and caregivers yesterday! Consumers will see a new generation of safer cribs for sale at local and national retail stores.

After years of accidents- including some that were fatal- caused by unsafe baby cribs, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has strengthened the safety requirements for baby-crib manufacturing. Safer cribs will mean a safer sleep for babies across the country. On December 15, 2010, the CPSC voted unanimously to approve new mandatory crib standards, establishing the most stringent crib safety standards in the world. Beginning immediately, all importers, distributors, manufacturers, and retailers must offer only cribs that meet the CPSC’s new and improved full-size and non-full-size crib standards. The new rules prohibit the manufacture, sale, or resale of traditional drop-side cribs. Mattress supports and crib slats will be strengthened, crib hardware will be made more durable and safety testing will be more rigorous. "A safe crib is the safest place for a baby to sleep. It is for this reason that I am so pleased that parents, grandparents and caregivers now can shop with confidence and purchase cribs that meet the most stringent crib standards in the world," said Chairman Inez Tenenbaum. "From the start, our goal has been to prevent deaths and injuries to babies in cribs, and now the day has come where only stronger and safer cribs are available for consumers to purchase." CPSC has recalled more than 11 million dangerous cribs since 2007. Drop-side cribs with detaching side rails were associated with at least 32 infant suffocation and strangulation deaths since 2000. Additional deaths have occurred due to faulty or defective crib hardware. The new standards aim to prevent these tragedies and keep children safer in their cribs. Starting on December 28, 2012, child care facilities, including family child care homes and infant Head Start centers, as well as places of public accommodation, such as hotels and motels, and rental companies must use only cribs that comply with the new crib standards. The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) required the CPSC to update the old crib standards, which had not gone through a major revision in more than 30 years, to ensure that the standards provided the highest level of safety possible. If you already own a drop-side crib, contact the crib manufacturer to find out if your crib has been recalled or if it will send you a bracket that will immobilize the drop side. For more information on crib safety you can go to www.cpsc.gov/cribs

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