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Parenting

Labor Day History for Kids

2:00

For younger Americans, Labor Day signals the end of summer and the beginning of a new school year. Communities, families and friends often celebrate with parades, parties and cookouts.  Many children and young adults don’t know the significance of Labor Day and how it came to be. Here’s a brief history that can help explain this national holiday to youngsters.

Labor Day is also known as the “workingperson’s holiday.” That’s because it was created to celebrate and honor hard working Americans that helped build this great country.

So, how did Labor Day come to be? It began in the 19th century.

During the second “Industrial Revolution” America was experiencing an explosion of new and exciting ideas and inventions. In the late 1800s lots of people from rural areas and farms, as well immigrants from other countries, moved into the cities looking for work. This population explosion completely altered the landscape of the American city.

One of the most historical inventions was the creation of the assembly line – a way for workers to make more products quicker and cheaper.  Another major change was in transportation. The steam engine allowed trains to carry products and passengers faster and farther than ever before. Coal became the primary source of power to move the train engines, heat buildings and generate electricity. With an abundance of people looking for jobs, factory and mine owners had plenty of willing workers to choose from. While this may have been good for the owners, it was not so good for the workers.

During these times, many people labored very long hours, with little pay, in unsafe factories and mines to produce the products needed. Even children as young as six years old worked all day in the same factories and mines and made even less money than the adults. Their jobs were physically and mentally hard as well as dangerous.

As conditions worsened, the workers decided they needed better and safer places to work, higher wages and an age limit on who could be hired. They formed groups known as unions to help make this happen. Sometimes the union workers would hold marches and protests to complain about the bad conditions and low pay. It wasn’t long before unions grew in membership and spread to different trades (or jobs) around the country.

To accomplish the changes the unions wanted, members organized strikes, protests and rallies. Some of the factory, companies and mine owners fought against the unions by firing the members, bringing in new workers and hiring people that would attack the protesters. On several occasions, police officers were involved in breaking up the protests or removing union workers. Sometimes the protests and strikes became very violent and people lost their lives or were severely injured. It was a very difficult time for people standing up for the right to work in a safe place, for a reasonable amount of time and to be paid an honest wage.

On September 5, 1882, almost 10,000 workers marched to Union Square in New York City marking the first unofficial Labor Day parade in U.S history.

Every year after that, this celebration of workers became more popular in other parts of the United States. In 1887, Oregon was the first state to pass a law making Labor Day a holiday. The same year, other states such as Colorado, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York also began passing laws recognizing Labor Day as a holiday.

Seven years later, in 1894, Congress passed an act that made Labor Day a national holiday. From that time till now, the first Monday of September is dedicated to celebrating the bravery and tenacity of American workers.

Happy Labor Day from the KidsDr!

 

Parenting

Breast Feeding

1:30 to read

I recently read an editorial in The New York Times entitled “Overselling Breast Feeding”. It was written by Courtney Jung who is a professor of political science at the University of Toronto.  It was quite interesting to me as she stated “the moral fervor surrounding breast feeding continues unabated, with a steady stream of advocacy and education campaigns”.  The WHO (World Health Organization) developed “ten steps to successful breast feeding” in hopes of increasing breast feeding initiation and duration around the world. Hospitals have been designated “Baby-Friendly”  (aren’t they all supposed to be?)  if they adhere to these steps as well. But the United States has done well with breast feeding rates as 79% of mothers initiate breast feeding.

Most, if not all of the new mothers I make rounds on are proponents of breast feeding. They have read the books, gone to classes and are determined to be successful at breast feeding. But, in my experience over the last several years, I have actually seen more and more new mothers becoming over-wrought and wary of breast feeding fueled by the “rules” that they are being required to follow. With that being said, having someone “tell you that you must breast feed your baby in the first hour after birth”, and that “your baby must remain in your room 24 hours a day“, and that they “may not have a pacifier”, “and should “breast feed on demand” is actually anxiety promoting and leaves many a new mother exhausted and tearful within a day or two of having a baby. 

While breast feeding is “natural” it also requires some practice and the only practice is really “on the job” training.  Some babies just latch on quickly and are pros immediately, but not all babies will become proficient at breast feeding in the first day or two. The mothers are told to “let the baby nurse on demand” and some mothers have had their babies at the breast for hours on end and are exhausted, with sore and bleeding nipples. I have walked in to too many hospital rooms with a mother in tears and a fretful baby, and a “helpless” new father.  Some feel as if “they are failures” as mothers before they even are discharged, and at the same time are having serious doubts about continuing to breast feed.  They are sure that their baby will catch serious illnesses and have a lower IQ if they don’t breast feed, but how can they maintain this constant breast feeding and no sleep and never put a pacifier in their baby’s mouth??? Is there only one way to be successful at breast feeding?

I loved breast feeding but it was a long time ago and we were instructed by caring nurses “to just go home and put the baby to the breast every 2-3 hours”. While that may not have been the best education has the pendulum swung too far?  Will giving the baby one bottle when a mother is having postpartum anxiety and sleeplessness really harm the baby?  Should a mother have to sign an order allowing her baby to have a pacifier??   While guidelines for breast feeding are helpful should they be so rigid that a mother “gives up” on breast-feeding because she can’t follow 10 steps in the first 24-48 hours?   

The New York Times article was quite interesting and I had to agree with many of the author’s  points. Supporting a woman’s choice to breast feed is admirable and “policy changes promoting maternity leave, and flexibility” are definitely needed to encourage women to continue to breast feed. But as she states “is all of this breast feeding advocacy crossing the line?”   A mother should choose to breast feed because she wants to, and that does not mean if her baby does not breast feed in the first hour that she will never bond with her baby or be successful at breast feeding.  Some woman are unable to breast feed for a multitude of reasons and that decision should not label her as a “bad mother”.  Again, breast feeding, like a woman’s breast, is not “one size fits all”. 

 

Parenting

Spring-Cleaning Kid’s Stuff!

2:00

Traditionally, spring is when we review what is needed and what needs to go. Clutter that has been growing throughout the years is viewed with fresh eyes once the season of renewal begins.

Along with typical household items, all the extraneous, broken and outgrown kid’s stuff can begin to take a toll. It takes up a lot of space and requires constant picking up. Clothes are beginning to look like a small mountain made of material, buttons and zippers.

Organization and prioritizing are the keys to making the job of spring-cleaning work.

When you’re ready to tackle the kid’s stuff- make them a part of the process. From arts and crafts to toys and clothing – get their input and give them choices. You, however, make the final decision on what stays or goes.

Here are a list of items to start with and how kids can have input:

1. Artwork. Kids love to create things, but not everything is a masterpiece. Encourage your child to pick out a few drawings, paintings or pottery works that are their favorites. Consider framing those pieces and putting them up in their rooms. For the other works of art that you like or they are having trouble letting go- take photos and store them on your computer, so you have a record of their creations! If your child is old enough, ask them to be the photographer.

2. Clothing. Sometimes getting rid of clothing is harder (for sentimental reasons) on the parents than the kids. I admit to being guilty of this. I still have several pieces of clothing from when my adult daughter was a toddler or baby. They are stored in a chest of memories. For all the rest, sort clothing that is likely to be passed on to either family members or friends, and ones that are ready for donation. Torn and stained clothing needs to be tossed out. Family homeless shelters always need good, clean children’s clothes.

3. Collections. Many kids are collectors, everything from bugs to superhero gadgets to valuable sports cards. Whatever your child chooses to collect is a symbol of their unique personality and interests. Managing collections provide early lessons on personal responsibility and organizing. Take an interest in what your child is collecting and find a way to honor the collection while respecting the space available to store it. It’s enriching for children to learn about limits and become comfortable making decisions to live within them. It’s also a time to learn about boundaries for collecting stuff. Many a hoarder began with a specific collection and moved on to collecting everything – unable to let go of anything. Have your child pick one collection to focus on and explain what they like about it.

4. Stuffed animals. Because they are so darn cute, stuffed animals seem to multiply like rabbits (particularly stuffed rabbits!) Culling these furry creatures can be difficult for parents and kids. Lots of children receive many more stuffed animals than they can play with or use. Overtime, they outgrow the attraction they once felt towards certain ones. Give your child a number that they can keep and let them make the decision of what stays and goes. Again, this is an area where other children can benefit from and enjoy the gifts donated by your child.

5. Arts and Crafts. If you have a child, then you’ve also got crayons, coloring books, paper, dried up markers and pens that don’t work. Grab a doodle pad and bring all the supplies to a table. Have fun sorting with your kids while making quick decisions about what’s worth keeping and what’s not. If you haven’t got one, consider creating a travel pack of supplies for use in transit. Extras in great shape can be donated. Use for birthday party decorations and activities.

6. Sports equipment. This is an area a lot of parents don’t think too much about but these things can fill a closet or garage in a few short years. Equipment that will be used next year should be cleaned and stored in a bin. Some sports items in good condition can be sold, put on consignment, passed on or donated to leagues.

7. Toys. Ah yes, toys… the biggest space eater of all. Kids these days have a tremendous amount of toy options. Between marketing, fads, peers and commercials there is an endless push for the latest, greatest new toy. How many of these once “gotta-haves” are now just filling up space and providing objects to trip over? Most of the same rules from above apply here. If it’s broken- it’s gone. If it’s not played with any longer- it’s gone. If it’s become a pet chew-toy- it’s gone. Organization is particularly important for toy collections. Bins can provide a good storage option if they used, but they can also become trash cans where all toys go even if they are just pieces. Its time clean them out.

Have your child pick out their favorite toys and decide which ones he or she would like to donate or throw out.

Sort and assign a bin by type. Good toys that your child has simply outgrown can be gifted to nieces and nephews and friends of your child. Intact toys that can still be played with can be donated. Broken toys should be trashed. For certain types of materials, you might want to check on finding a recycling bin.

During this cleaning expedition, you may need to gently point out a toy’s condition to your little one, “I know that play oven was one of your favorite toys, but it doesn’t stand anymore and the front door is missing. Maybe it’s time to let it go.”

And then there’s always Ebay, might as well make a little back on the thousands you’ve spent, especially on video games!

Spring-cleaning is a good time to re-evaluate what needs to stay and what needs to go. I think we’re all aware that it’s time-consuming, but clearing out the clutter not only gives you more space and organization, but also feels great when it’s done!

Story source: Clare Kumar, http://www.todaysparent.com/family/activities/spring-cleaning-with-kids/

 

Parenting

Helping Kids Cope With Tragic Events

2:00

Another all too common tragedy has saddened the hearts of Americans this week. Just 35 days after a man opened fire on a crowd of concertgoers in Las Vegas, killing 58 people and wounding nearly 500 others, another mass killing has taken place. This time in the small community of Sutherland Springs, Texas, leaving 26 people dead and 10 critically injured.  About half of the victims were children, according to news reports. This follows a terrorist attack in New York City on Halloween that killed 8 people. The heartbreak and numbers are gut wrenching to think about.

These kinds of horrific events can make the world seem like a terrifying place, particularly for kids.

How can you help your child cope with such frightening news? As a parent or a caregiver, how you react can have a strong impact on how your child views his or her own safety.

Dr. Jennifer Caudle, an associate professor at Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Stratford, suggests that parents shield their children from news reports.

"Children may become upset by news coverage," Caudle said. So monitor and limit what they see, hear or read. This may reduce their anxiety and help them deal with these unsettling events, she explained.

Other suggestions include:

  • Ask your child what they have already heard about the event. 
  • Provide the facts but try not to make judgments about the situation. 
  • Avoid upsetting details, and reassure children that people are working hard to make things better for everyone. 
  • Don't pressure kids to talk about the events, but encourage them to share their feelings by talking, drawing or writing. 
  • Let children know they can come to you for information and that they are free to ask questions. 
  • Remind children that their home is a safe place. 
  • Let children know that people may react differently to hard-to-understand events.

If your child or adolescent seems to be obsessing over the events and is having a hard time putting things in perspective, they may need professional help. 

"Problems with sleeping, changes in appetite or behavior, mood changes and new physical complaints, such as stomach aches and headaches, could -- in some children -- be a sign that they are having a difficult time coping," she said. "If this is the case, make sure your child sees a health care professional."

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) says that it is important to let your child know that you will do your best to take care of him or her, that you love them and it’s okay for them to feel upset or sad.

NIMH also offers these tips:

  • If your child is having trouble sleeping give them extra attention, let them sleep with a light on, or let them sleep in your room (for a short time).
  • Try to keep normal routines, for example, reading bedtime stories, eating dinner together, watching TV together, reading books, exercising, or playing games.

Unfortunately, these types of tragedies don’t appear to being going away anytime soon. But, you can help your child (and yourself) by reminding them that although there are some people that might want to inflict harm on others, most people are loving and kind. They want a safe place for children to grow up in and they are doing their best to make this world a better place.

Story sources: Mary Elizabeth Dallas, https://consumer.healthday.com/mental-health-information-25/child-psychology-news-125/helping-children-cope-when-a-mass-tragedy-strikes-728263.html

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/helping-children-and-adolescents-cope-with-violence-and-disasters-parents/index.shtml

Parenting

Helping Shy Children Find Their Way

2:00

With school back in session, many shy kids are facing a difficult time. As a parent, you’re already familiar with your child’s personality and can tell when he or she is experiencing anxiety in a social situation.  Once your child enters school, there are going to be times when your little one is immersed in surroundings that may make them very uncomfortable, but along with challenges comes solutions.

As parents of a shy child, there are two traps to avoid: overprotectiveness and pressure. Trying to get your child to be more outgoing will only make him or her retreat. And sheltering denies them the chance to enjoy group activities or become comfortable in social circumstances. You have to walk a tightrope, promoting social behavior with compassion.

Some children are shy from birth and have a genetic predisposition to be that way. Other kids are shy only during certain situations that make them uncomfortable or afraid. These might include:

·      Meeting new people

·      Entering new situations

·      Being singled out or being the center of attention

·      Not knowing how they're expected to act or what they're expected to say

·      Being laughed at, embarrassed, or teased

Quite frankly, the last situation makes just about everyone uncomfortable, but for children that are naturally shy, it can be quite traumatic.

One tip for parents is to try and use the word “shy” less often when describing their child. Being labeled can make your child feel less confident. Being labeled anything presents a certain amount of pressure to live up to its definition. 

Instead, put a positive spin on his or her shyness. Maybe a more accurate characterization is "slow to warm up"; rather than withdrawing from or avoiding new situations, he or she just takes their time and sizes up the scene. This can be translated into a compliment: "You like to think things through," or "You like to get started slowly." As time goes on, your child can adopt this more positive view of him or her self and use it as a rebuttal if someone challenges their behavior.

Kids are often fearful when they don't have the social skills necessary to feel comfortable during a particular scenario. A child who hasn't spent much time around large groups of people, for instance, is more likely to want to avoid them. A child with low self-esteem or one who's been pushed hard academically may be afraid to fail, leading to shyness. Watch your child closely to see what triggers his or her shyness. Once you understand their anxieties better, you can talk them through and work together on ways to overcome them.

School is going to be a place where kids experience a tremendous amount of socialization- whether they want it or not. So why not practice difficult situations at home? This way, children have an idea of how to respond either before an event happens or before it happens again.

In an uncomfortable situation, a shy kid experiences the same physiological reactions that adults do. Your child may feel shaky, get sweaty, or turn red. His heart may race, or she may get a frog in her throat. If his reaction is visible to those around him, he may get even more embarrassed, setting up a cycle of awkwardness each time he has to step up to the plate.

With practice and reassurance, though, your child can prepare for those moments that throw him or her for a loop. You and your child can talk through the situations that make them nervous or, if your child is willing, even act them out together. He may giggle and think it's silly to practice saying hello at a birthday party or introducing himself to the soccer team, but he'll also begin to feel more confident in his ability to be friendly and relaxed.

You might also remind your child that it's normal to be nervous when meeting someone new, starting a new class, or being called upon by a teacher to speak. Describe one of your own flustered moments to show that most people have the same feelings.

In a child’s mind, one of the most important aspects of school is fitting in. This is a time when parents can make helpful suggestions. You might encourage him or her to get involved in activities by discussing the value of participation and then helping them discover a sport or activity they like to do. The key is to find something that suits them -- perhaps where they can be part of a team but still function as an individual, such as running cross-country or singing in the chorus. When a child realizes he or she is good at something, their confidence will rise, and so will their enthusiasm. However, if your child really resists, don't turn it into a power struggle. In a low-key way, keep making suggestions and trust that they’ll be drawn into an activity eventually.

Shyness should be a bump in the road, not a roadblock. With some anguish and a certain number of false steps, even very shy children can learn to forge relationships and cope when the spotlight is on them. They may have fewer friends than other kids, but those friendships will be just as close.

In rare cases, a child is so shy that he or she begins to avoid all interactions. If you are concerned that your child's shyness is isolating them or undermining their ability to function, seek help from a school counselor or your family pediatrician. Either may have valuable advice and can refer you to a specialist if necessary.

Yes, it can be like walking a tightrope trying to help a shy child learn how to handle uncomfortable situations. You don’t want to pressure too much or protect too much and it can be emotionally challenging figuring out the next step.  

By accepting your child as he or she is, you can help them accept who they are. It may help to remind yourself that your child's temperament isn't a reflection of your parenting skills. As long as he or she has some friends, is reasonably happy with his or her self, and can function as a student and family member, all is well. Praise your kid for their efforts to be social, provide advice when asked, keep an eye on their progress and challenges and know that they will find their way in the world.

Story source: Anne Krueger, https://consumer.healthday.com/encyclopedia/children-s-health-10/child-development-news-124/shyness-ages-6-to-12-645930.html

Parenting

Fourth of July Safety Tips

2:00

For Americans, it doesn’t get any more patriotic than Independence Day- or as most folks call it- July 4th.  The holiday celebrates the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, in 1776.

It’s traditionally been a high-spirited holiday with fireworks, casual family and friends’ gatherings, parades, lake and pool parties, music and lots of food. 

All these activities help build life’s memorable moments, however, the one memory you don’t want is a visit to the emergency room.

Here are some safety tips to keep in mind while enjoying the Fourth:

Fireworks: It’s really best to leave fireworks to the professionals, but if you’re planning on setting off some during the Fourth of July celebrations, follow these tips:

1. Be sure fireworks are legal in your area before using or buying them

2. Always have an adult supervise fireworks activities and never allow children to play with or ignite fireworks. Sparklers alone account for one quarter of emergency room fireworks injuries

3. If you set off fireworks, keep a bucket of water or fire extinguisher handy in case of malfunction or fire.

4. If fireworks malfunction, don’t relight them! Douse and soak them with water then throw them away.

5. Never ignite fireworks in a container, especially one that is glass or metal.

Grilling: Malfunctioning gas grills cause the majority of grill fires. In addition, thousands of people visit emergency rooms every year because they have burned themselves while barbecuing.

1.     Use your grill well away from your home and deck railings, and out from under branches or overhangs.

2.     Open your gas grill before lighting.

3.     Periodically remove grease or fat buildup in trays below your gas or propane grill so it cannot be ignited.

4.     Declare a three-foot "kid and pet-free zone" around the grill to keep them safe.

5.     Avoid loose clothing that can catch fire when cooking on the grill.

Water Safety: According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in five people who die from drowning are children 14 and younger. For every child who dies from drowning, another five receive emergency department care for nonfatal submersion injuries.

1.     Never leave a young child unattended near water and do not trust a child’s life to another child; teach children to always ask permission to go near water.

2.     Have young children or inexperienced swimmers wear U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets around water, but do not rely on life jackets alone.

3.     Establish rules for your family and enforce them without fail. For example, set limits based on each person’s ability, do not let anyone play around drains and suction fittings, and do not allow swimmers to hyperventilate before swimming under water or have breath-holding contests.

4.     Even if you do not plan on swimming, be cautious around natural bodies of water including ocean shoreline, rivers and lakes. Cold temperatures, currents and underwater hazards can make a fall into these bodies of water dangerous.

5.     If you go boating, wear a life jacket! Most boating fatalities occur from drowning.

6.     Avoid alcohol use. Alcohol impairs judgment, balance and coordination; affects swimming and diving skills; and reduces the body’s ability to stay warm.

7.     Always keep a charged cell phone with you for emergency use, but do not get distracted using your phone to text, surf the net or reading emails.

July 4th is a historic holiday and one that holds a special place in America’s heart.  Make sure your 4th is memorable for all the right reasons.

Happy Independence Day!

Story sources: https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2016/06/30/ten-safety-tips-4th-july

https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/water-safety/waterinjuries-factsheet.html

http://www.iii.org/article/grilling-safely

 

Parenting

Laughing Gas to Ease Labor Pains?

2:00

Like many Americans, you may think laughing gas (Nitrous Oxide) is something that is only used in a dentist’s office to ease the fear of dental work.  But if you live outside the U.S., you’re more likely to associate the pain reducing gas with childbirth.

A recent U.S. survey based on interviews with a representative sample of nearly 1,600 women who gave birth in American hospitals in 2005, showed that only about 1% of American women used nitrous oxide for pain relief during labor, as compared to 69 % of British women and 70% of New Zealanders.

However, U.S. doctors say that these figures may already be starting to shift in favor of using laughing gas in the delivery room.

Laughing gas used to be given to women during delivery quite often - but was replaced in the 1930s by the epidural for controlling pain. Today in the delivery room, epidurals are used almost exclusively for medically- induced pain relief.

In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approved new laughing gas equipment to be used in American delivery rooms, and this resulted in a resurgence of use in America.

"Maybe 10 years ago, less than five or 10 hospitals used it [for women in labor]," Dr. William Camann, director of obstetric anesthetics at Brigham and Women's Hospital, told ABC News. "Now, probably several hundred. It’s really exploded. Many more hospitals are expressing interest."

Why should a woman consider using laughing gas during labor?  There are actually quite a few pros.

Laughing gas is regarded as a less extreme pain relief option during labor, when compared to the traditional epidural. It’s recommended for women who opt for a natural delivery but simply need a bit of help along the way.

"It's a relatively mild pain reliever that causes immediate feelings of relaxation and helps relieve anxiety," Camman explained. "It makes you better able to cope with whatever pain you’re having."

According to an article published in the journal Birth, “Although nitrous oxide provides much less complete pain relief than an epidural, it is enough for many women. It is eliminated through the lungs rather than the liver, and so does not accumulate in the mother’s or baby’s body. Unlike opioids, it does not depress respiration.”  

Another advantage is the cost. Nitrous oxide is a lot less expensive than an epidural. The average cost for a woman choosing laughing gas during labor may be less than a $100, compared to an epidural, which may run as high as $3,000 according to some experts.

One of the biggest complaints for women who undergo an epidural is the numbness they experience far after labor. It can take sometimes hours for women to regain complete sensation in the lower half of their body, but with laughing gas the effects wear off nearly as soon as inhalation ceases.

There are cons associated with laughing gas as well. It doesn’t completely alleviate the pain and many women feel it just isn’t strong enough. It can also cause some disorientation and a change in awareness.

Laughing gas is also known to have side effects such as nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness. Although these are not experienced by all women who use the gas for pain relief, for those that do, it can blemish the birthing experience.

Ultimately, the choice whether or not to use laughing gas is completely up to the mom’s comfort level. She can also opt to have an epidural if she finds she does not like the effects of the gas or feels that it is not providing enough relief from the pain. Unfortunately, at this point many hospitals in America do not even offer laughing gas as an option, but perhaps due to this recent surge in popularity more delivery rooms will become stocked with the pain relief option in time. 

Having gone through the birthing experience myself, I vote for as many safe pain-relieving options as possible!

Sources: Dana Dovey, http://www.medicaldaily.com/laughing-gas-pain-relief-when-giving-birth-becoming-popular-option-among-new-moms-319180

Judith P. Rooks, CNM, MPH, MS http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00150.x/full

Parenting

Mumps Reach 10 Year High; Hitting Colleges and Kids Hard

1:45

Mumps are making a comeback, particularly on college campuses and in daycare centers.

A recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report shows that mumps are at a 10-year high. As of November, 45 states and the District of Columbia had reported a total of 2,879 mumps infections — more than double the mumps cases reported in 2015.

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Common symptoms can include swollen glands in front of and below the ear or under the jaw, pain with opening and closing the jaw, fever, fatigue and malaise, headache and earache.

Currently, college campuses are taking the brunt of the mumps outbreak.

Dr. Michael Grosso, medical director and CMO of Huntington Hospital/Northwell Health, said close quarters such as dormitory living, can make it easier to pick up the virus.

“It’s spread through respiratory secretions, coughing, sneezing, close contact and sharing the same cups and utensils,” Grosso told CBS News.

Some colleges, such as The University of Missouri’s Columbia, are asking students to restrict their social activities and to make sure they get immunized. Typically, two doses of vaccine are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC, but the school is asking students to get a third measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine “based on discussions with public health officials and consistent with guidance from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.”

College students aren’t the only ones being hit hard by mumps; younger children are also experiencing a rise in reported cases. More parents have opted-out of getting their children the MMR vaccine - putting non-immunized children at a higher risk.

Daycare centers are similar to college dormitories in that they provide an environment where a virus can be easily spread.

While most mumps cases are mild, albeit, uncomfortable, others can be more serious.

“Most individuals recover uneventfully from mumps, however as many as 10 percent of males who get mumps will get an inflammation of the testes which can lead to permanent sterility,” Grosso said.

The brain can also be affected. About 1 percent of people who come down with the mumps get serious brain infections and can experience meningitis, encephalitis and deafness associated with a brain infection.

“That small risk was behind the original impetus to create a vaccine,” Grosso said.

 Physicians are urging students to get the immunizations and to practice good hygiene. Simple steps such as covering your cough or sneeze, washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, avoiding sharing food, drinks, cups or utensils can help prevent the spread of viruses.

Vaccines are still the most effective way to lower your risk of getting the mumps.  No vaccine is a 100 percent protective, Grosso notes, but it can help you avoid the risk of serious illness and lifelong health issues.

“Receiving two doses of mumps vaccines is said to confer about an 88 percent reduction in risk of getting mumps if you’re exposed,” said Grosso. A third dose may increase those odds.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the first dose of MMR vaccine should be administered between 12 and 15 months of age, and the second dose between 4 to 6 years of age.

Grosso emphasizes that parents need to get their children vaccinated early.

“Being immunized late is better than not being immunized ever. But being immunized late is not nearly as good as being immunized on time,” Grosso said.

Story sources: Mary Brophy Marcus, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mumps-cases-10-year-high-college-outbreaks-vaccination/

https://www.cdc.gov/mumps/

Parenting

Recent Hurricane Disasters May Have Lasting Impact on Kids

2:15

Children may experience long lasting trauma from either living through or even viewing images of natural disasters such as hurricanes, Harvey and Irma, experts say.

"Compared to adults, children suffer more from exposure to disasters, including psychological, behavioral and physical problems, as well as difficulties learning in school," Jessica Dym Bartlett, a senior research scientist at Child Trends, said in that organization's news release.

It’s reasonable to think that children who have actually had to live through the devastation of being in a hurricane could be traumatized and suffer post-traumatic stress syndrome, (PTSD.) But child mental health experts say that even kids who have seen pictures of the damage and watched news reports can also be traumatized and may develop similar symptoms of PTSD such as depression and anxiety.

"Understand that trauma reactions vary widely. Children may regress, demand extra attention and think about their own needs before those of others -- natural responses that should not be met with anger or punishment," Dym Bartlett said.

To help children through this difficult time, parents should create a comforting and safe environment where their child’s basic needs are met. Keep to regular schedules and other routines that provide children with a sense of safety and predictability.

Children that stay busy are also less likely to have continuing negative thoughts; boredom can worsen adverse thoughts and behaviors. Youngsters are less likely to feel distress if they play and interact with others, Dym Bartlett noted.

Limiting your child’s exposure to the continuous images and descriptions of disasters coming from news reports is also helpful, but it’s not necessary to try and eliminate everything pertaining to catastrophes. It’s better to help children understand what has happened in age-appropriate language and to empathize hope and positivity. Reassurance that you are there for them and will do all that is humanly possible to protect them can ease some of the fear associated with disasters.

"Find age-appropriate ways for children to help. Even very young children benefit from being able to make a positive difference in others' lives while learning important lessons about empathy, compassion and gratitude," Dym Bartlett said.

If a child continues to have difficulties coping for longer than six weeks after an event, like the hurricanes, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network recommends seeking professional help.

Parents and caregivers should also make sure that they take care of their own emotional health during these trying and sad times.

Story source: Health Day News, https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2017/09/12/Hurricanes-may-take-lasting-emotional-toll-on-kids/4141505232381/?utm_source=sec&utm_campaign=sl&utm_medium=14

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